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Wilfrid Laurier University
Byron Williston

AN201 FINAL REVIEW – LECTURE NOTES Columbus’ 2 mistakes  General term “indies” blanketed over  his destination  Europeans called these people the Indians o Looked at as noble people  Simple life o Exonyms for Indians  Cree, eskimo, Ojibwa  Each place gave personal names o Atik  Identifiable persona  Inuktitut name/being, it was given to you o Saunik  Naming someone after something or someone  Their life is carried out as that person or thing  Europeans thought that north Americans were a crude, primitive culture and language  Europeans told stories of their origins o Legends o Oral history o Myths  Europeans considered North Americans “people without history” since they has no written down laws or religious beliefs etc. Health  Conflict of diseases between the two peoples regarding illness, medical cures, baptism and death o Preists brought over diseases unknowingly o Baptized the Indians, and basically sent them to their death o Indians thought the Europeans made them Christian and go to their heaven rather then go with their own people Land  State was a territorial entity  North Americans had a primitive idea about borders of their land  French wanted to accept religious faith, marry the same people, become as one  Then, emerged people of both Indian and European background  European culture radically different, fundamental organization such as selling land and political/social leadership Boas and the study of North American Peoples  Franz Boas 1858-1942  Trained in physics, then geography  1883-1884 studied Inuit in Baffin Island o Participant study  1890’s curator at field museum (AMNH)  1905-1942  Columbia University Evolutionism vs. “Historical Particularism”  Boas accepted Darwinian organic evolution  Rejected socio-cultural evolution of Morgan, Tyler and Spencer  Cultural patterns developed ‘in situ’ as a result of environment, human adaptability and ingenuity  “Physic unity” of human kind  Cultural patterns emerge as a peoples need to its own area and the resources surrounding the culture  Adapted to their environment  One culture is not more evolved than another in a different place ** Anthropology must study cultural traits in detail, make comparisons, trace origins of elements of material culture, social culture and religion ** Cultural Relativism  Cannot compare cultures in rank order  Suitably appropriate to which the environment of where they live Museums and Culture Areas  Evolutionism & museum displays  AMNH, Peabody Museum, Smithsonian o Arranged material culture in evolutionary sequences, functional similarities o Influence of Boas, Clark Wissler led to regional displays  Patterns in geographical zones  This led to culture area concept  Wissler, Kroeber Culture Patterns  Culture area 1. Geographical region 2. Ecological adaptation 3. Diffusion of cultural patterns 4. Usually common language stocks Culture Areas in Canada  Arctic  North Pacific Coast  Intermundane (Plateau)  Eastern Woodlands/Atlantic  where we live  Great Plains (Northern Plains)  Western Subarctic  Eastern Subarctic Regions and People Arctic  60-90 deg north  Labrador, northern Quebec, arctic islands, Keewatin, coastal Nunavut, north west territories, Yukon, north and west coastal Alaska  Tree line runs roughly along permafrost  INUIT o Racial, linguistic, cultural group o Derived from different races o Physically distinct from Indian peoples o From Greenland to Siberia North Pacific Coast  South Alaska to Washington  Coastal mountains to the ocean  Language groups o Tlingdit, haida, tsimshian, wakashan, salish  Marine, riverine fishers, sea mammal hunters, forest hunters o Seals, sea lions, sea otters Northern Plains  Prairie to high plains o Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta  Grasslands to prairie  Horse/bison cultures o Migratory hunters  Blackfoot, blood, sarsi, stoney, plains cree, plains oijbwa Western Subarctic  Keewatin, Mackenzie Valley, NWT, Yukon, Alaskan Interior, N.E British Columbia  Boreal forest  barrens hunters o Caribou hunters and trappers  Lake and river fishers  Migratory bands  Athapaskan languages (Dene) o Numerous languages & dialects  Chippewyan, dogrib, slavery, Yellowknife Eastern Subarctic  Interior Labrador, Quebec, Ontario (Hudsons Bay/Georgian Bay), N.E Manitoba, Newfoundland  Northern forest hunters, trappers, fishers  Transhumant bands  Moose, woodland caribou, game birds, waterfowl, fish; trap beaver, mink  Algonquian languages o Cree o Ojibwa Eastern Woodlands/Atlantic Coast  Southern Ontario to St. Lawrence (trois rivieres), Nova Scotia, New Brunswick  Eastern U.S o Great lakes  Virginia  Iroquoian and Algonquin speaking  Eat corn, beans, squash  Cultivation, fishing, hunting  Villages up to 2000 people, tribes, alliances Linguistic Anthropology  Anthropology and indigenous languages  Franz boas o Language is the “soul of a people” o Shapes the way people think  Importance of a language preservation  All ideas are expressed in terms of that language Linguistic Archaeology 1. All languages derived from a mother language (Proto) 2. Distinctive features arise (dialects) 3. Dialects then break down and separate languages (daughter languages) o “cognates”  worlds which are shared by related languages  varies Central Algonquian Languages  Proto central Algonquian (extinct) o Extant C.A languages  Cree, Ojibwa, Fox, Menominee, Potawatomi, Shawnee, Miami-Illinois  These languages/spelling of words are very similar  Cree  “nokomisso”  Ojibwa  “nokomiss”  Fox  “nohkomissah” o Proto-form  “Nohkohmissah” o All varied spelling comes from proto form  Many animals are proto central Algonquian - words that are shared  We can also trace back the origin languages through modern language  Although some people may not come in contact with certain words or animals, they still have a word/vocabulary list for them  Some words are clues to which environment people live in  Some PCA words: o Seal o Black bear o Salt sea (ocean) o Caribou o Wolf o Boat o Harpoon o Black spruce Language Change and Time  Morris Swadesh  Glottochronology  “Universal” vs. “Cultural” vocabularies  Universal vocabulary changes slowly over time o E.g. Northern Iroquois and Cherokee  Calculated rate of change  18% every 1000 years  Comparison of universal vocabularies o Span of time since linguistic separation Language and Thought  Franz Boas o Trained in physics and geography, studied Inuit in Baffin Island  Edward Sapir o Director of Canadian museum of civilization  B.L Wharf o Degree in chemical engineering, worked as insurance investigator o Linguistic knowledge derived through vacation time Linguistic Relativity  Hypothesis:  Language reflects modes of thought  Linguistic differences reflect differences in thought and worldview Indigenous Languages  Joseph Greenburg  American linguist  Came up with the THREE PHYLA: Algic o Algonquian  Cree, Ojibwa, Micmas o Gulf  Muskogean, Creek, Choctaw, Wakashan Dene o Athabaskan Beaver, Gwichin, Haida, Tlingit, Apach Namerind o Iroquian  Huron, 6 nations, Cherokee Archaic Stage o Period of extensive language change 1. Arctic  Inuktitut  Aleut 2. East Subarctic  Algonquian  Cree, Ojibwa, Micmac 3. West Subarctic  Dene  Athapaskan 4. North Plains Coat Dene  Tlingit, Wakashan 5. Northern Plains  Algonquian  Blackfoot, Cree 6. Eastern Woodlands  Iroquoian  Mohawk, Huron Language Contact & Change o Impact of European languages: o French, English, Dutch 1. Language Extinction a. Genocide b. Beothuk 2. Language Absorption a. Laurentian b. Eerie 3. Language Pidginization (mixture of 2 or more languages) a. Michiff (Cree and French) b. English 4. Language Shift a. Ethnologue Canada i. Number of speakers, total population, lost languages Caribou Migration Video o Caribou has the longest migration routes o Pregnant caribou break the trail and males follow weeks later o They migrate to northern arctic and then back down Information about Fauna Caribou o o Migrate north in spring and south in fall in the arctic o 3 subspecies in arctic/subarctic o tundra, woodland, peary o 4 major herds o Beverley o Dawson o Porcupine o Qamanirjuag o Migratory o 90-180kg o Meat, hide, bone, fur, antlers, sinews all used o Major source of food/shelter/clothing resource Moose o Largest mammal  600kg o Travel in small groups o Non-migratory Fish o Lacustrine, riverine, anadromous o Mackenzie valley o Yukon o Many species in each o Reflects migratory/resident birds People/Languages o Scattered evidence of occupation: 15000 years o Predominant language in the area  Dene o Maximum time depth: 2500 years o Archaeological o Major migrations of people Dene o Athabaskan/Tlingit o Absence of “tribes” o Band structure loose and changing o The groups represent religion Prehistory o 10,000-4500 BP  Microblade Hunters o Earliest migrants into North America o Blades, triangulate tools o 4500-1300 BP  Taye Lake Culture o Used larger points  Choppers, scrapers o Cold fluctuations o Environmental change o 1300-200 BP  Aishihik Culture o Archaic hunting  Bow and arrow  Wedges, wood working  Copper trade  Arrow points, gorges (fishing)  Chiseled & hammered tools  Meteoric iron used o 200-100 BP  Bennot Lake Culture (Little Ice Age) o Glacial enlargements o Rivers dammed, new lakes formed o Settlements of log houses o Trade goods  Steel axes, chisels, knives, guns, glass, beads o Initially from coast Tlingit Social Political Organization  Strong ecological constraints o Local game availability o Exploitative  Seasonal harvesting patterns - trapping, netting  Game cycles o Sustainable exploitation  The “foragers problem”  Must allow for renewal of population  Independent/Dependent ratio o Group size and composition Historical Factors th  European presence (19 century influence)  Cree invasion  Trading posts, trading groups  Home guard bands  groups of people who left their migratory life to a still trading post  HBC appointed leaders  Brought over disease o Decimation of populations o Widespread various indigenous groups and areas Social Organization  Basic “glue” of society  Two kinship patterns  Cousins = siblings  Distinction between older and younger siblings  Creates enlargement of nuclear family o Defensive, supportive group  “Kindred’s” Kindred  Bilateral kinship group  Extended family made into close family web e.g. Beaver people Organization  Small, fluid groups  Bilateral kinship o But designated as blood or in laws o Blood  “Consanguine” o In laws  “Affine”  “Wedene” o Bilateral kindred’s o One group including blood and in laws and cousins  Among some groups: matrilineal kinship  Distinguishes cross/parallel cousins Parallel Cousins  Siblings  Mother’s sister’s children  Father’s brother’s children  Linked through same sex Cross cousins  Potential spouses/in laws  Mother’s brother’s children  Father’s sister’s children Worldviews/Beliefs  Impact of 19 century  Missionaries o Catholic, Anglican  European influence: o Almost entirely converted, but elements of shama
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