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Roman Civilization Midterm Study Notes.doc

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Lisa Trentin

Roman Civilization Midterm Study Notes Sources of Evidence Archaeology  Structures 1500-2000 years old still stand today  Leon Battista Alberti, Andrea Palladio, and Pirro Ligorio, architects  Many sites were discovered due to treasure hunting, and destructive digging and tunneling Material Culture  Artifacts and structural remains  Who built what and when of great importance  Buildings were highly celebrated  Roman Forum, Colosseum and Pantheon still survive today Visual Culture  Painting on vases, walls, portraits, sculptures, etc  Tells us about: mythology, religion, rituals, life, historical events, wars, people etc  Pliny the Elder gave much info in “Natural History” Drawings & Maps  Buildings that were destroyed are preserved in drawings The Marble Plan  Showed the plan of the city, once on the wall of the |Temple of Peace  Very little survives, about 1000 fragments, a few having been put together Numismatics  Many had the face of the emperor  New buildings on the flip side, political propaganda Epigraphy  Religious Dedication: altars, statues or temples  Honorific Inscriptions: base of a statue, name rank, and career, statement by dedicator  Commemorative Plaques: victory or vow of allegiance  Building Inscriptions: erection or repair of a building, name and title of emperor, name + status of the builder, nature of building, previous condition of building.  Milestones: when roads were finished or repaired  Tombstones: DIS MANIBUS ( to the spirits departed), MEMORIAE (to the memory of) and the name.  Other Inscriptions: stamps on tile, graffiti, plaques etc. Historiography  Study of how the past is obtained and transmitted  Fabius Pictor: first roman historian  Polybius: greek historian, rome rise to power  Cato the Elder: first to write in latin, rome’s foundation  Sallust: Cataline Conspiracy, Jugurthine War  Diodorus Siculus: Bibliothecae Historica  Livy: history of rome  Dionysus of Halicarnassus: Roman Antiquities, history to 264 BC  Josephus: Jew, greek history of the Jewish Wars  Tacitus: Annals, Histories  Dio Cassius: History of Rome  Eusebius: events and dates in Greek and Roman History  Eutropius: history to 364 AD  Zosimus: History of the Decline of the Roman Empire Literature Virgil: Poet, Aeneid, origins and growth of rome Vitruvius: Engineer and Architect, On Architecture Suetonius: lawyer, secretary, and biographer “Lives of the Caesars” The Geography of Rome  Surrounded by water on all sides except the North, where the Alps are  Four major Seas: Tyrrhenian, Mediterranean, Ionian, and Adriatic  Three major Rivers: Po, Arno, and Tiber  Trade by sea is extremely important  Three major plains: Po, Campania, and Latium Valleys  Apennines run down side, barrier between east and west  Three isles: Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily Topography of Rome  Lazio region of Italy  Tiber River, 7 hills  Tiber provides sea access  Hills protection  Palatine: central, rome founded on. Central power, site of temples and Roman Forum  Capitoline: stronghold, only to hold out during Sack of the Gauls, temple of Jupiter  Quirinal: attached to capitline, god Quirinus  Viminal: small insignificant  Esquiline: first settlement of the ancients  Caelian:  Aventine: territory of the plebs Quick History  Monarchy 753-509 BC 244  Republic 509-31BC 478  Empire 31BC- AD 476 507 1229 years all together, Neolithic Italy  Otzi the Iceman from 3300BC  Skeletal embrace  Flint tools, travel by foot, copper axe, waterproof shoes, Appennines  People of the Bronze Age 1800-1000BC  Close link to the terremare culture  Unknown change in 1200 villanovan culture develops  Permanent villages, defensive hills  Buried with artifacts Villanovans  Iron age 1100-700 BC  Northern Italy bologna, N and S of Appennines  Funerary evidence, burial rights important, cremation of remains  Hut urns  Import goods from greeks  Earliest stage of Etruscan life Etruscans  From Etruria  Major power in italy for 400 years until taken over by rome  Heavy influethe frothgreeks, helped to develop rome  During the 6 and 7 century BC  12 city states  Villonovans taken over by Etruscans  Two major colonies in the North, Felsina and Marzabotto  Destroyed during the battle of Veii, the cities absorbed into Rome  Alphabet taken from greeks, which was later the source for latin Etruscan contributions to Rome  Pomerium, enclosed city in walls, scared boundary  Architecture: Arch in tombs, romans used in bath, theatres  Alphabet  Religion: worship of Juno, Minerva, and Jupiter, temples much like them as well  Kingship: many of the last kings were of Etruscan origin (lucumo), regalia (clothes) crown septre, toga etc Magna Graecia  Close proximity to Greece  Possible democratic crisis, famine, climate change and drought may have cause the colonization in Italy  Searched for commercial outlets  Greeks in Cumae, earliest mainland colony  Taken over by Rome given citizenship without vote.  Cumaean Sibyl, guided Aeneas to have prophecy of Rome rd  Paestum, 3 century Rome, 3 temples, hera, Athena, Apollo  Tomb of the Diver, greek painting of a person!!!  Roman was introduced to |Greek: life architechture, city planning, literary style, art, war tactics etc  Art: copied and readapted, statues and paintings, decorate homes with  Mythology: absorbed greek gods and cults, zeus= Jupiter  Literature: poetry, comedy, tragedy, history, rhetoric. Aenied influenced by Iliad and Odyssey  Philosophy: same doctrines and teaching of Greek Schools, Seneca adopted Stoic principles Rome’s Foundation  Focuses on negative aspects, war and death  Virgil writes of Aeneas, taken from Homers Iliad: Trojan hero, landed near Cumae, went to underworld, saw father, sees Rome. Takes Trojans to latium, marries Lavinia, son Julus founds Alba Longa, where Rom and Rem are born. Embodied pietas. Duty to gods, family and homeland  Book IV shipwrecked in Africa, in love with Queen Diedo, gives up mission to be selfish, Mercury tells him to go to Cathage  Book VI underworld, shows how Augustus lineage goes to gods  Book VII King Latinus and daughter Lavinia  Romulus and Remus  Aeneas son King Numitor, deposed by brother Amulius, daughter Rhea Silivia made Vestal Virgin, violated by Mars and has twins. Twins thrown into Tiber, survive suckled by wolves, found by shepherd. |Restore Numitor to throne, founf city of their own, Rome. On Paletine. Romulus kills Remus reigns for 40 years.  Couldn’t decide who to rule so they leave to omens, go to hills see vultures, fight and kill  Another by Livy, Romulus builds a wall around city, Remus mocks and jumps over , killed  Evidence of a wall was found at Paletine dating to mid 8 century th  Evidence of a village on Paletine during 8 century  Lupercal Cave? Under Augustus’ residence on Paletine  Palace remains found under the Roman Forum Roman Monarchy Seven Kings  753 Romulus  715 Numa  673 Tullus  642 Ancus  616 Tarquinius Priscus  578 Servius  535 Taquinius Superbus  Kingship was not hereditary except for the Tarqs, although their reigns did not follow one another, he stole the throne illegally anyway  Elective system, most kings were foreign  Interregnum: after a king died patricians held place for 5 days at a time for up to one year before a new king replaces.  Powers of the King: head of Gov’t, enforce laws, manage property, see public works, command military, rep for god, legislative proposals, civil and criminal cases  Romulus: 3 tribes, Latins, Sabines, and Etruscans, this was the basis for the army. Each tribe split into 10 curiae= Comitia Curiata (assembly of the people). Formed the Senate of the 100 noblest men command when he was gone – praefectus urbi. Personal guard Celeres. Died during a speech  Numa: very pea
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