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roman civ exam notes.doc

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Department
Archaeology
Course
AR105
Professor
Lisa Trentin
Semester
Fall

Description
The Spoils of War • The Roman Triumph o Near divine o Vir triumphalis o Great military achievement o Win a significant battle killing over 5000 o Be an elected magistrate o Bring the army home o Must be approved by the senate o Civil wars don’t count • Death Masks • Victory temples o Spoils places inside • Booty o Displayed in home o Victory temples The End of the Republic Marius and Sulla Who were they? Why are they so important? What impact did they have on government and the Roman Constitution? • The people were divided into two groups o Populus o Optimates • Gauis Marius 157-86 BC o populus o Used popularity to advance his career o Commander of Jugurthine War o Consul 7 times o Military Reforms  Established the first professional army: proletarii  Reorganized the army into 10 cohorts of 500-600  Trained them to fight like glaiators  Soldiers were required to carry their own supplies o Killed by Satrinius who was well liked • Social War 91-88 BC o Casued by the mirder of Livius Drusus, tribune who wanted citizenship given to all allies o 90 BC Lex Julia  Anyone not part of the “war” was granted citizenship o 89 BC Lex Plautia  Anyone who let down their arms upon the first call was granted citizenship o 88 BC Lex Pompeia  Everyone granted citizenship o This resulted in a unified Italy under Rome 500, 000 new citizens • Cornelius Sulla 138-78 BC o Optimate o Cammanded the Mithridatic War o Marched on Rome twice, became dictator o Had Marius exiled, but he marched back with the support of one consul o Increased the size of the senate 300-600, his own supporters o 7 permanent law courts o Limited the powers of the tribunes, making it a dead end in politics o Retires 79 BC o All his reforms reversed once gone • The Slave Revolt 73-71 BC o Caused by dissatisfaction of slaves, escape from the Capuan school, taking up arms o 71 BC Spartacus vs Crassus o Spartacus vs, Pompey o They use the military to help their careers, get consulship The First Triumvirate How and why was it created? Who were the key players? What impact did this group have on late Republican politics • Marcus Crassus 115-53 BC o Very wealthy o Military commander and Consul • Gaius Pomeius Magnus 106-48 BC o Greater military leader o Consul at the same time as crassus o Aided sulla’s march on rome o Demanded that his soldiers be given land and that he be given legal recognition of his arrangement in the E o Third Triumph over Asia o Theatre and Portico of Pompey • The Catiline Conspiracy 63-62 BC o Etruria pissed o Catiline vs. Petreius o Unresolved • Gaius Julius Caesar 100- 44 BC o Very old Roman family o Pontifex Maximus o Politician • The First Triumvirate o 60 BC o Crassus money, pompey army, Caesar politics, gets consulship o Each got political gain, not recognixed by the constitution o Each got proconsul o Caesar agrarian law • Collapse o Pompeys wife dies o Crassus dies in Syria 53 BC o Pompey and Caesars dislike eachother o 2 years without consuls because of the disorder and violence o Pomepy consul 52 BC o Caesar invades 49 BC civil war o Pompey defeated 48 BC battle of Pharlus The Rise of Julius Caesar How did he rise to power? What were his contributions? How did he set the stage fro the Imperial Period? • Caesar become consul and dictator 10 years • 44 BC people name him Dictator for life • Reforms o Senate 600-900 o Forgave interest on loans, wiping out ¼ of the debt o Recolonizing and colonizing o Revised the calendar to 365 o Encouraged public building  The forum iulium  Temple of venus genetrix  Basilica Julia  Curia Julia o Public entertainment  Gladiators  1 wood amphitheatre • The Ides of March: o The death of Caesar 44 BC o Stabbed to death by 60 senators led by Brutus • End of the Republic o Mark Antony consul o Kept his reforms The Second Triumvirate How and why was this group created? Who were the key players? What impact did this group have on the formation of the Principate? • M. Aemilius Lepidus 89-13 BC o Caesar supporter o Consul 46 BC while defeating Pompey o Master of the Horse, commander of troops o Pontifex Maximus • Marcus Antonius 83-30 BC o Loyal friend and supporter of Caesar o Tribune, co- consul o Relationship with Cleopatra • Cleopatra VII 69- 30 BC o Appointed pharaoh by Caesar, had son o Allied with Antony o Had children with him • Caesar Octavian 63 BC- AD 14 o Adopted as Caesars heir o Little experience o Consul, condemned caesars killers • The Second Triumvirate o 43 BC, Octavian, Lepidus, Antony o Triumvirs for the restoration of the state o Official and legal o Imperium higher than consul o 2 five year terms 43-33BC o Used sulla like sposcriptions o Each proconsul 40 BC • Collapse o Antony’s loyalty in question o Married to Oct’s sister, but having an open affair in Egypt o Dislike between the two o Antony defeated in battle of Actium 31 BC o Official transition of Republic to Empire o Octavian become Princeps • Battle of Actium 31 BC o Naval battle in Greece o Octavian rep by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa o Antony supported by Cleo o Antony 500, Oct 250 o Antony, severe malaria o Antony general defects, takes battle plans o Octavian wins, A+C flee and commit suicide 30 BC Augustus How did he rise? What kind of Ruler? How did he set the stage for the rest of the Imperial Period? • Wants to restore the Republic • Balance between ppl and senate • The First Settlement o 28 BC says hes giving power to people o 10 year command of the provinces, consul 10 years o 27 BC given title Augustus and Princeps o Given luxuries, royal insignia • The Second Settlement o Allowed to wear insignia in public o Imperium Mauius over all positions in government o Power of the tribune for life o Pontifex Maximus 12 BC o 2 BC Pater Patriae Father of the Country o Prima Porta • Pax Romana o Roman Peace 27 BC- 180 AD o Little expansion o No major civil wars or blood shed • The Ara Pacis o 13 BC- 9 BC o Altar dedicated to Augustus o Political propaganda o Aligns himself with Aeneas • Reforms o Civil service  Police, firefighters, temple forces, postal o Reduced the size of military o Longer service o Rate pay o Pension for soldiers o New treasuries  Rome’s new finances  Payment to legions  Pension for discharges military veterans o Control sexual and social mores o Benefits for the poor  Food, public games o 80 temples o Ara Pacis o New colonies o Romanization • The Praetorian Guard o Troops to protect the Emperor o Complete loyalty o 1500 • Building Plan o Glorify his rule o Employment for the poor o Concern for the public o Temple of the divine Julius o Forum of Augustus o Temple of Mars Ultor o Mausoleum Of Augustus o Didn’t live in a palace, home on the Paletine • Death o 14 AD peaceful Julio Claudians • • Tiberius o 14 -37 AD • Caligula o 37- 41 AD • Claudius o 41-54 AD o Instigated by praetorian guard o Expansion o Possibly poisoned by Argippina o Buildings • Nero o 54-68 AD o Great Fire 64 AD o Death civil war Flavian Dynasty • 69-96 AD • Vespasian 69-79 o Military commander, First Jewish-Roman War o Elected by his troops o Temple of Peace dedicated to the people o Stability and peace o Coliseum o Died naturally • Titus 79-81 o Sacking of Jerusalem 70 Ad o Mount Vesuvius 79 AD o Great Fire 80 AD o Deified Vespasian o Finish coliseum o Died of fever o Deified by senate • Domitian 81-96 o Declared by praetorian guards o Palace on the Paletine o Assassinated by court officials o Damnatio Memoriae o Used public land • The Coliseum o Flavian Amphitheatre o Gladiators and mock battles o Executions o 80 AD Trajan & Hadrian • Nerva o 96-98 o Declared by senate o Bought land to give to people o Child support to increase birthrate o Died naturally • Trajan o 98-117 o Extensive building plan o Trajans market and column o Expanded the empire to its peak o Optimus Princeps- greatest prince o The Baths o Trajan Forumn o Died of a stroke o Deified by senate • Hadrian o 117-138 o Peace o Wall 122, Britain o Greekling o Pantheon o Antinous young lover  Facts and fantasies  Supposeidly beautiful  Lover of Hadrian  Statues  Honoured as a god, a city named after him  o Mausoleum of Hadrian o 1 emperor with a beard  Made it more popular  Greek philosophers o Made Athens tax expempt  Well liked there  Arch of Hadrian  Temple of Olympian Zeus o Died heart failure The Antonine and Severan Dynasty Who were they? Why are they important What were their contributions to Rome? Antonines • 138- 180 AD • Antoninus Pius o 138-161 AD o Peaceful o Little military conflict o Antonine Wall  North of Hadrian’s  142 AD border of Britain and Scotland o Temple of Antoninus and Faustina o Column of Antoninus o Lots of public shows o Well liked by both senate and people o Apotheosis, shows his deification o Died naturally • Marcus Aurelius o 161-180 AD o Only accepted throne if Verus would be co-emperor o Verus died after 8 years o Made new reforms to help slaves, widows, and foreigners o Stoicism  Self controlled  Calm, collected  Seneca o Deified o Equestrian statue • Lucius Verus o 161-169 AD o Co-emperor with MA • Commodus o 180-192 AD o Son of MA o Performed as a gladiator, putting on lots of public shows o BAD o Praetorian guard not needed to protect good emps so he had lots o Gave most of his power to prae guards o Paranoid of conspiracy, had reason to o Condemned by the senate o His death end of Pax Romana • The Year of the Five Emperors o Pertinax Dec 192-193 o Didius Julianus Mar- June 193 o Pescennius Niger June193-194 o Clodius Albinus 194 o Many were assassinated by guards, people, or senate The Severan Dynasty • Septimius Severus o 193-211 AD o Rose to power during the Civil War 193 o Wealthy family in Africa o Revoked commodus’ condemnation o Dismisses most of the praetorian guard o Arch of himself, commemorates military victories o Died campaigning in Britain • Caracalla o 211-217 AD o Co-emperor with brother Geta 209-211 o Killed him, having his memory condemned o Didn’t really want to rule o Very cruel, assassiations o Baths of Caracalla o Assassinated en route by his own troops ,to campaign • Geta o 209-211 AD o Brother of Caracalla • Elagabalus o 218-222 AD o Made emperor by troops of his home town o Mentally unstable o Rumours that he was the secret son of caracalla o Accepted by the senate o At the time of his death he was 18 o Taken with his mother, murdered and thrown into the Tiber • Alexander Severus o 222-235 AD o Became emperor age 14 o Very uneventful o Assassinated by troops o Death started the Crisis of the Third Century • C
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