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Final

CL102 Exam Review.docx

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Department
Archaeology
Course
AR105
Professor
Scott Gallimore
Semester
Winter

Description
CL102 - Final Exam Review (Pre-Midterm) Intro -founded in 753 BC but earliest settlements date way further back (several centuries) -typical to think the end was 476 A.D., now it's thought to be 700-800 A.D. -started in small Latin region, expanded through all Mediterranean -greatest extent of civilization was 117 A.D. -Romanization: process by which different regions adopt Roman characteristics -diversity of regions would mean Romanization would vary -many media outlets show Roman as violent Paintings -Roman of decadence - 1847 Thomas Couture -Verso Pollice - 1872 Jean Lean Gérôme -Oath of Horatii - 1784 Jacques Louis David -Cicero denounces catiline - 1888 by Cesare Moccari -Intervention of Sabine Women - 1799 by Jacques Louis David -Triumph of Titus - 1885 by Lawrence Alma Tadema -Senecas Suicide - 1871 by Manuel Dominguez Sanchez -Victor list -Status/portrait show austere individuals dedicated to Roman Values -Erotic objects/paintings found at Herculaneum & Pompeii -comes from texts that emphasize specific powerful individuals Lecture 2 -117 A.D. Roman Empire was at greatest extent -ruled by kings -freedom/consulship was made by Lucius Brutus -dictatorship only for crisis -decemvirs only last 2 years -consulor jurisdiction over military didnt last long either -despotism of Cinna & Sulla were brief - Lucius Conelius -Pompey and Crassus yielded before Caesar Aeneas led troops to shores of Italy for refuge after Trojan war (1200 BC) -war between Aeneas and Latium under king Latinus -Latinus and Aeneas come to truce over marriage -Vestal Virgin raped at Alba Longa/have birth to 2 twins, boys thrown into river to die but come to Rome -Romulus killed Remus and founded Rome in 753 BC -earliest evidence in Forum Boarium (1600BC), 2 ind. settlements (4000BC) Kings: -Romulus (753-716) 37 years -Numa Pompilius (717-653) 64 years -Tullisus Hostilius (653-641) 12 years -Ancus Marcius (641-617) 24 years -Tarquinius Prisus (617-578) 39 years -Servius Tullius (578-535) 43 years -Tarquiniud Superbus (535-509) 26 years - raped cousins wife Lucretia; told her father & husband then killed herself -Lucius Brutus saw this and rid Rome of kings forever -After that day consuls only for 1year term held full control -most significant issue for republic was Patricians and Plebeains made by Romulus -Patricians held offices -Veii 16km north of Rome -Seige of Veii took 10 years 405-396 -Romans used evocation, asking gods to leave and come to Rome -dug tunnel into citadel under M. Furrius Camillus -391/390 Gaul attacked Rome -couldn't take city defeated by Camillus in 2 battles -Rome power struggle w/ Somnites, Cultural group to southeast -dealt with rebellions from Latin groups -by early 300 expansion problems in Magna Graecia -Greeks ask Pyrrhus of Epirus then 280 come to Italy w/ 25000, 20 elephants -beat Rome 280-279, many losses -Rome beat Pyrrhus in 276, controlled peninsular Italy -no dominant power to charge Rome -1st Punic war 264-241 BC, Carthage, Syracuse, Rome all want Messana on Sicily, Rome won after Navy -2nd Punic war 218-201, Carthage army led by Hannibal, entered Italy by crossing alps -inflicted damage on Rome, couldn't take city -Philip V (Macedonia) allied w/ Hannibal after 3 wars took over Greece in 167 -Gracchi brothers - Plebeians wanted won-land to be equally distributed, Tiberius assassinated in 133 and Gaius in 123 -1st Century Marius was general who was consul 5 times -reformed the army, won wars Gaul/Africa -Sulla; Roman general felt betrayed by Rome after wins captured by city twice and was dictator for 10 years -58 Julius Caesar got command to conquer Gaul, called him enemy of state for power/gains -49-45 Caesar/Pompey fought for control of Rome -44BC Caesar killed by senate, felt like he was becoming king -named his grandnephew (Octavian) heir, made Mark Antony mad, Caesars second in command -they battled and Octavian eventually victorious at Aetium off Greece -took name Augustus - title of princeps, to avoid looking like a king, power was renewable -wanted to expand empire to N. Europe, in A.D. 9, 3 Roman legions ambushed and massacred in the Teutoburg Forest -in 25BC, August named Marcus Claudius Marcellus successor, (nephew) died 23BC -next 3 decades, all successors named by August died before him -Tiberius took rule 14-37 A.D. reluctantly, distrusted senate -Gaius (Caligula) child of Augustus & Liva, thought he was insane, killed him for irregular policies -Nero; arts > politics, didnt leave any heirs -Civil war 68-69 after Nero, 3 people were emporers and all were killed leaving Vespesian (general of Nero) sole commander -Vespesian (69-79) first member of Flavian Dynasty, stabilized empire, reformed govt of Rome -Commodus (180-192) more interested im gladiatorial combat -no successor after, no fewer than 5 named emperors after in 193 -Septimus Severus (first NA emperor); 193-211, began severan dynasty, lasted to 235, last period of stability for 50 years -235-285, 18 emperors had position ratified, Pretenders rose up on numerous occasions, characterized by military strife -Domitianus in 271 temporarily ruled Britain -284-305; Diocletian son of freedman, reformed entire imperial system of govt, one man could not be emperor -286 Maximian became co-emperor, max=western, dio (dominant)=eastern -293 Diocletian created tetrarchy, each Augustus had it's own Caesar (junior emperors and successors) -305 Dio and Maxi replaced by Caesars -Tetrarchy based on Dio, with him gone, conflict emerged -battle of milbian bridge, Constantine & Maxentius, Constantine won, entire control of empire -divided Rome in 2, governed alone, named 3 sons successors -Western capital moved from Rome to Milan -324 Constantine created capital eastern Byzantium -4th A.D. conflicts between Christianity, paganism, barbarian invasions, Theodosius (378-395) let barbarian settle in Roman territory -5th A.D., Germanic commanders had top positions, Child emperors meant decisions made by proxies, numerous provinces abandoned -western saw invasions from Vandals, Alan's, Suevi, barbarian tribes, settled on roman land agreeing to fight in military -Attila; after uniting huns 443, wanted to create own empire, launched invasion that reached Gaul, stopped by Germans -Romulus Augustus; 475-476 last emperor, not recognized in eastern, deposed by Odovacer, German king -west after 476 divided into Germanic kingdoms, rulers imitated titles of roman emperors -Justinian ruler of Byzantine Empire, many building, admin, military actions -failed to reclaim western empire Literature & Technology -defined as texts in Latin -written under roman rule still Greek lit -Alphabet taken from Etruscan, took it from Greeks -earliest could be 8th/7th BC, left to write or write to left -earliest forms were described as Carmen by Latin authors -Carmen Saliare; Carmen arvale, religious poems/songs -earliest codification in mid 5th century, 12 tables laws -Cicero describes as Carmen Necessarium -first published speech as Carmen -Literature in the traditional sense Romans traced origins to mid third century BC -Introduced by Livius Andronicus, freedman came to Rome from Greece, school teacher and a translator for both Greek & Latin -first translation was odyssey of homer, translated Greek tragedies/comedies to Latin -Latin lit focused on stage, Tragedy (cothurnata) - Pacuvius, Accius / Comedy (palliata) - Plautus, Terence -genres came over other centuries, all were Greek except one -early/old Latin - < 100BC -golden age, Classical Latin - 100BC to 14AD -silver age - 14AD to 2nd century AD -late Latin - post 2nd century AD -we learn golden age, rise of Cicero, Julius Caesar, Vergil, Horace, Catullus, Ovid -pvt edu for boys and less girls, 3 levels tutors or group lessons, limited for poorer members of society -2 roman innovations: glass blowing & concrete -<1st BC all vessels using moulds, small size, limited quantities -glass blowing enabled mass production and different shapes -signed products -vessel Manu. adv stages, e.g. late roman cage cups manufactured from single piece of gass -beginning repub. period used hydraulic concrete, preferred gypsum/like mixed with volcanic sand -concrete faced with stones, bricks or others -enabled diff shapes, massive dimensions -maritime concrete, 1st attested at Caesarea maritima (Israel) in 1st century AD -antikythera mechanism; late second/early first century BC -considered worlds oldest scientific calculator, built between 150-100BC -Byzantine sun dial, same design as Antikythera Mech but simpler -rain water collected with open roof into impluvium -impluvium had drains a to street and underground cistern -Pompeii water access changed dramatically with construction of aqueduct by Augustus or Claudius -Castellum Aquae water house north of Pompeii -inside was cistern with 3 outlets, distr. regulated by raising/lowering series of metal shutters -from C.A. to series of water towers in/around city -lead pipes to distr. water, most Pompeii had running water -Pompeii built on north-south plateau -most disposal was in streets Roman Government -Rome 1st ruled by king, monarchy appears common throughout Italy in 1st half of 1st millennium BC -Republic established 510/509BC -Senate held primary power, senator position held for life -senator; meet property qualifications (800,000 sestertii) and had to be elected into office -Curia (located in Forum); meeting place for senate/magistrates of Rome -political offices had to be held; included age and numbers of terms restrictions -great honour if someone else every office -10 years military service > at 20 military tribune > at 30 Quaestor (finances/military) > at 36 Aedile (infra/supply of Rome) > at 39 Praetor (relig/military/judicial) > at 42 consul (supreme magistrates; army/politics) for 6m > every 5 years Censor (census/removing senators/morality) for 18m -4 quaestors, 2 aediles, 2 praetors, 2 consults -govt usually run by older families -novus homo, first to be consul from family (Marcus Cicero) -dictatorship in emergencies for 6m or as long as it takes, similar to kings, second in command was Magister Equitum -e.g. Aequi L. Quinctus; 15 days -tribune of plebs; exclusive to plebeians in 5th BC, went from 2 > 10, could veto senate -after Sulla (1st BC) tribune was dead-end, last position -1st roman province was Sicily, 241BC during 1st Punic war -kept the same system already in place, sent roman magistrates -tax based on grain -too few senators, added more -more provinces>more offices -conversion to empire; Marius was consul 5 times > Sulla dictator for 10 years > Caesar dictator for life -senate lost army, whoever controlled army, controlled politics -Caesar might've been first emperor -many titles given to August first given to Caesar -praenomen 'imperator' -emporers were princips "chief citizen", renewable annually -domnatio memorae on commodus -used on co-emporer Geta by brother Caracalla 211AD -Assembly of Centuries (consuls, praetors, censor) -Of tribes (quaestor, Patric. aediles -Of plebs (tribunes, pleb. aediles -373 centuries in 1st assembly each one got vote, other had 35 -plebs withdrew to hill and made elections, refused to cooperate until demands were met -patricians took all new lands, Gracchi brothers (tribunes) faught this in 2nd century BC -Tiberius intro law of public lands, reinforcing 500 iugera limit, wanted 3 man board to distr. land in 133BC -triumvirs given less funds -King Attalus III of Pergamum gave kingdom to Rome, given to triumvirs -tried reelection, killed by senators and followers put under investigation -Gaius became tribune, limited power of senate, reimplemented his brothers law -121 BC laws were trying to be repealed and he was killed in conflict -property class below senate (400,000) considered to be business oriented -Equestrians benefited from emperors/below the senate Roman Religion -Historical Data Archaeological Data -roman religion has to be done within context of roman society as whole -roman military triumph was marriage of religious, political and military ideals -path through city has many religious sites and end is Temple of Jupiter on Capitoline -many religions in roman world had secret rites -Christian authors never divulged the secrets -modern manifestations of ancient religions are very different -terminology poses problems for interpreting ancient religions, e.g. pagan used for roman religion but weighs a lot more in modern -Pyrgi tablets: Etruscan dedication to Phoenician goddess Ashtaret, bilingual -Rome, connection between military and religion through temple of Janus -doors closed = Rome at peace -curse tablets, thin led sheets, interesting look -guardian spirits worshipped on Kalends, Nones and Ides of each month, most households had a shrine for the Lares -over 30 lares shrines in Pompeii streets -might've marked diff districts -small shrines also found in commercial places -artifacts preserved related to rituals associated with Isis cult -Lakshmi found in house of Four Styles at Pompeii -Sabazius equated to Zeus shrine in Pompeii -AD 96 Emperor Nerva exempted Christians from Jewish tax, not considered Jewish, lost privilege to be monotheists -Christianity more visible in 3rd century AD -Christian house at Dura Europa built at 225AD, earliest known
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