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Midterm

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Department
Archaeology
Course
AR246
Professor
Jonathan Haxell
Semester
Winter

Description
Sedimentology - Bio Components o Peat:  Occurs? o Subaqueous sediment:  3 types: - Sediment Transport mechanism: o Gravity produces:  Sorted or unsorted? o Colluvial:  2 types and their sorting:  Define diamicton: o Aeolian:  Sorted or unsorted and size? o Glacial:  Size and sorting? o 2 riverine types:  Sorted by what? o 2 coastal types:  Sorted by what? - Variables of Sediment o Sediment texture:  2 scales are: o Particle shape:  Reconstructs what (2 things)? o Particle orientation (identifies what?): o Particle sorting:  High energy currents transport:  Low energy currents transport: o Sediment structure (bedding):  Horizontal bedding:  Shows:  Graded Bedding:  Shows:  Cross bedding:  Shows: - Data collection strategies o Unconsolidated samples (what data is provided?): o Consolidated samples (data provided?):  Examples of consolidated samples (3 types): o Archaeological profile o Natural exposures o Geological sections - Reconstruction of depositional environment o Environment conditions reconstructed by:  1 (proxy):  2: o Transport process  Cryogenic sediments suggest (type of env):  Aeolian deposits suggest:  Colluvial effects suggest: o Changes in depositional env:  Identified by:  Define meromictic lake and why its important: Pedology - Soils are: o 2 types of modification: - Sediments result from bounded event - Soils is on going process - Soil development means what about sediment: - Soil cannot be understood stratigraphically, why?: - 2 process of Pedology o Pedogenesis:  Top to bottom or vice versa?: o Diagenesis: - Pedogenesis o Horizons  O (on):  A (all):  E (empty):  B (bottles):  K (Kevin):  C (carves):  R (reefer): o 5 things that influence pedogenesis: climate, topography, biota, parent material, time  Climate:  Temp and moisture influence soil o Desert (few plants and animals) o Temperate env (many plants and animals) o Northern climate (conifers)  Topography  Slope (effects):  Elevation:  Biota  Plant contribute:  Animals contribute:  Define bioturbination (eg. Burrowing):  Impact of plants seen through (4 things):  Animals impact seen through (2):  Human impact mostly through (1): Geomorphology - Geomorph is: - Gives context for sites on o Microscale by:  Define aspect: o Mesoscale by:  Define relief: o Macro-Megascale by: - Must be reconstructed to understand: - Traditional approach focussed on: - Modern approach focuses on: - Features organized by sphere: o Geosphere:  Midocean trenches:  Subduction zones:  Features formed by geosphere (relief – 5 things):  1:  2:  3:  4:  5: o Atmosphere:  Weathering (2 types):  Erosion:  Define lag deposit:  Deposition:  Define saltation:  Features formed  Loess plain:  Dunes: o Define barchans and erg: o Hydrosphere  Marine (oceanic)/ Lacustrine (lakes):  Define eustatic:  Erosion (3 types)  1:  2:  3:  Riverine (3 types of transport)  1:  2:  3:  Colluvial  Define Solifluction:  Define Gelifluction:  2 types of features:  Fluvial/Alluvial features  Channels (2 orders): o Influenced by (3 things): o Define sinuous channel: o Define braided channel:  Levees:  Flood plain:  Terrace:  Alluvial fan:  Karst topography:  Oceanic/Lacustrine features  Erosional o Shoreline cliffs (4 stage process):  Depositional o Beach ridges: o Spits, bars: o Cryosphere  Define glaciation:  Define isostasy/isostatic rebound:  Mechanical Features  Abrasion:  Plucking:  Glacial melt:  Erosional features  Peak (horn):  U-Shaped valleys:  Bedrock scouring: o Define striations:  Depositional features:  Till (2 types):  Moraines: o Terminal: o Ground: o Lateral:  Kames:  Eskers:  Kettles:  Drumlins: o Biosphere  Plants (what do they do to sediments?):  Animals (including humans)  Effect usually on?:  Agriculture (3 things): o 1: o 2: o 3:  Mining (3 things): o 1: o 2: o 3:  Water diversion projects (3 types): o 1: o 2: o 3: - Reconstruction methods o Look at previous states  Map analysis (3 things):  Aerial photographs:  Define photogrammetry:  Field observation of remaining features  Map microscale features o Look
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