BI110 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Health Care In Canada, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Health Belief Model

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17 Nov 2016

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What is Health?
World Health Organization (1947)
“health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the
absence of disease or infirmity”
Health has multiple dimensions
can be seen as a capacity or resource for a vital and meaningful life, rather than a state
“social, emotional, spiritual and biological fitness on the part of the individual which
results from adaptations to the environment (Rene Dubos, 1968)
“to realize aspirations, to satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment...a
resource for everyday life” (Ottawa Charter, 1986)
"the capacity of people to adapt to, respond to, or control life’s challenges, and changes"
(Frankish et al., 1996)
Defining Health
Health: the dynamic, ever-changing process of trying to achieve individual potential in the physical,
social, mental, occupational, emotional, environmental, and spiritual dimensions
→ellness: achieving one’s potential in each of the health components
Health and Wellness Continuum
The 7 Dimensions of Health (PSIEOES)
Physical Health: body size, shape, functioning, susceptibility to disease, ability to perform ADL
(activities of daily living)
ex. shower, get out of bed, cook a meal etc.
Social Health: capacity for satisfying relationships, successful interactions, communication
Intellectual health: ability to think clearly, reason objectively and make responsible decisions
Emotional Health: ability to express emotions effectively and appropriately, self-esteem, trust
Occupational health: satisfaction from career, career development, Work/life balance
Environmental health: appreciation of one's external environment, concern for preserving, protecting
and improving
Spiritual health: having a sense of meaning and purpose of one's life, strength and hope
Life Expectancy
Number of years a person can be expected to live based on their year of birth
Varies slightly with each successive cohort
Varies as a function of gender, place of residence
Morbidity and Mortality
Morbidity: another term for illness or disease
Mortality: another term for death
Both often given as rates (Ex. Infant mortality)
Co-Morbid- Someone having 2 disease at once (co-occuring)
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Incidence & Prevalence
Incidence: number of new cases of a specific condition in a specific population within a specific time
likelihood of being diagnosed with a specific condition in a specified time - how quickly is
condition developing?
Prevalence: Total number of cases of a specific condition existing in a specific population within a
specific time period
How common is the condition?
Incidence & Prevalence given as rates
incidence rate: number of newly diagnosed cases in specific time period, divided by the number
of persons in population
Classification of Disease
Acute vs. Chronic
Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or
fungi. Can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another
e.g. hepatitis, malaria, STDs
Non-infectious or Non-communicable are medical conditions or diseases which can’t be transmitted
person to person
e.g. Heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis
Changing views on Health
Medical Model - pre 1900 (focus on individual)
biological / diseased organ perspective
person is sick because they have cancer (treatment)
does not consider other reasons why a person may be sick
Public Health Model - early 1900’s (focus on individual’s interaction with environment)
aka “ecological model”
microorganisms - good hygiene (prevention)
In 1900
More than 30% of all deaths occurred among children under 5 years
Infectious disease - leading cause of these deaths (tuberculosis, pneumonia, influenza)
The increase of sanitation, vaccines and antibiotics
Life expectancy dramatically
leading cause of death shifted to chronic diseases
Risk Factors in Health and Disease
Non-Modifiable Risk Factors: those that cannot be manipulated or changed
e.g. age, gender, ethnicity, family medical history, genetics
Modifiable Risk Factors: those you can do something about
e.g. diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, body weight
Focus on Prevention
Disease prevention - “preventive medicine”
emphasizes the identification and management of early indicators of risk
goal - prevent illness, delay onset, lessen the severity
Divided into three levels:
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Primary prevention- Actions/behaviours designed to prevent health problems from
arising targets whole population. e.g. Immunization, safe sex, healthy eating
Secondary prevention- Early recognition and intervention to eliminate or reduce
symptoms before a more serious illness develops - targets “at risk” individuals. e.g. diet
intervention for increase blood sugar, smoking cessation
Tertiary prevention -Treatment or rehabilitation efforts aimed at limiting effects of
disease targets patients. Prevents further development, progression, complications. e.g.
chemotherapy, bypass surgery
Health Disparities
differences in disease risk, variation in symptoms
gender bias in research, society-determined roles, power/equity
Socioeconomic Status:
social gradient in health
education, health behaviour, access to healthcare
physical and mental health
access to healthcare, community resources, social support
Sexual Orientation:
social support, access to health benefits
Benefits of Optimal Health
Individual Level:
Increase life expectancy
Improve quality of life (QOL-quality of life)
physiological function (e.g. stronger immune system, cardiovascular endurance)
Improved physical appearance
Improve self-esteem, self-efficacy, positive outlook
Enhanced relationships
ability to manage stress
capacity to cope with life’s challenges
Global Level:
personal health choices contribute to global health or the global burden of disease
direct medical care costs
indirect costs associated with poor health (lost productivity, absenteeism, disability)
Making Healthy Choices
Choosing healthy behaviors now (Immediate benefits)
Balanced, holistic approach (improved ability to meet development tasks)
Choosing health now (Long-term rewards)
Adequate sleep: 6-9 hours
Healthy eating
Regular physical activity
Healthy body weight
NO smoking!
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