BI110 Study Guide - Final Guide: Protein Kinase C, Protein Kinase A, Signal Transduction

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14 Dec 2016
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Once a receptor is activated, a signal transduction pathway (sequence of biochemical reactions) leads to the cell"s response. Most cases, signalling molecules (ligands) bind to protein receptors embedded in the membrane. Sometimes, some signalling molecules will bind to receptors present inside the cell. Many of these receptors trigger a few common signal transduction cascades: In membrane bound receptors, once the ligand binds the receptors will activate intracellular second messengers and transmit the signal further. In both types of receptors, a single molecule is able to elicit various responses thereby increasing the original stimulus once the signal is transmitted. Finally, the signal results in a target cell response: usually a physiological change such as activation of a protein or change in gene expression. Signals may activate different responses depending on the proteins present in the target cell: some may activate numerous pathways. Proteins present in cells are not always active and must be turned on/off.

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