BI110- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 83 pages long!)

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29 Mar 2018
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BI110
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Wednesday, September 13, 2017
BI110
Lecture 2 Reading!
1.4-1.5
Evolution
-evolution: unity and diversity of life !
-natural selection: mathematical formulations proving how environment chose certain
organisms to live on!
-environmental variation: variation among individuals due to dierences in the
environment!
-genetic variation: genetic material transmitted from parents to ospring!
-Mutations arrive from random errors during DNA replication or from environmental
factors!
-if not corrected they pass onto the next generation!
-evolution is when genetic makeup or a population changes over time!
-new species arise by divergence of population through timefrom a common ancestor!
-Humans and chimps share more features than they do with other species!
-Evolution theory predicts primates should show a nested pattern of similarity!
-Three major branches in life mostly made of microorganisms!
-Tree of life makes predictions for order of appearance!
-Example is the coli demonstration
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Wednesday, September 13, 2017
BI110
Lecture 1 Reading!
1.2-1.3
Chemical and Physical Principles!
-biology is study of life!
-living things change constantly, reproduce, evolve!
-living organisms have 4 key characteristics!
-Complexity !
-Ability to change !
-Ability to reproduce!
-Capacity to evolve!
-both are subject to basic laws of chemistry and physics!
-chemical emleents that make up living things can be found in non living things!
-relative abundances is what changes and is dierent!
-carbon provides backbone of life!
-lving organisms are subject to physical laws of the universe!
-first law of thermo. —energy can not be created nor destroyed!
-second law of thermo.—degree of disorder tends to increase (entropy)!
-cell is not isolated system therefore cannot be considered and on its own;exists in an
environment!
-can life start spontaneously from nonliving things?!
-Open jar had maggots, gauzecovered jar didn’t, sealed jar didn't!
-Life cannot just start from nothing!
-This only proved large organisms but what about small organisms!
-He did this experiment with broth in a straight neck flask and swan neck flask!
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