BI236- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 138 pages long!)

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29 Mar 2018
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BI236
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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BI256: Taxonomy and Phylogeny of animals
Taxonomy = organizing and classification
Phylogeny= evolutionary tree
Note: Animal diversity is NOT random but has a definite order.
Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Animals
Biologists organize animals in a nested hierarchy of groups within groups according to
evolutionary relationships as revealed by ordered patterns in their sharing of
homologous features.
Darwin: theory of common desent or ancestory.
Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Animals
>1.5 million species of animals named
< 20% of all living (extant) animals (another 80% is still unknown)
< 1% of all extinct animals
Taxonomy
Formal system of naming and classifying species
Systematics
Broader science of classifying (systematization) organisms based on similarity,
biogeography, etc.
Systematic zoologists have three goals
To discover all species of animals
To reconstruct their evolutionary relationships
To classify (systematize) animals according to their evolutionary
relationships via an informative taxonomic system
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Animal Classification & Taxonomy
Classification: Overview
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
-Developed classification scheme based on morphology
-hierarchical taxonomic framework
-binomial nomenclature
(e.g. Homo sapiens)
Rank system: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species } 7 mandatory ranks
- Over 30 taxonomic ranks for complex groups.
- Eg. Fishes and insects
Note:
Carolus Linnaeus designed the current system of classification
- Swedish botanist with extensive experience classifying objects, especially flowers
- Used morphology to develop a classification system of animals and plants
- Published in his work, Systema Naturae
- Divided animal kingdom into species and gave each a distinctive name
- Grouped species into genera, genera into orders, and orders into classes
- His classification scheme has been drastically altered, but the basic principle is still
followed
A scientific name of an animal consists of two words (binomial nomenclature)
- First word is the genus and is capitalized
- Second is the specific epithet written in lower case
- Scientific name should be printed in italics or underlined if handwritten
- Homo sapiens
Genus name
- Always a noun
- Names of genera must refer only to a single group of organisms
Species epithet
- Usually an adjective that must agree in gender with the species
- Never used alone
A specific epithet may be used in different genera
- Sita carolinensis (white-breasted nuthatch)
- Poecile carolinensis (Carolina chickadee)
Ranks above species are single names written with a capital initial letter
- e.g. Reptilia and Cnidaria
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