BI256 Study Guide - Winter 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Asexual Reproduction, Sexual Reproduction, Nervous System

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BI 256 - Animals
January 7th 2019
Cnidarian polyps:
-have radial symmetry (wheel) and cell tissues grade of organization
-number of embryonic germ layers is important in architecture
-number of body cavities also determines architecture
-all three of these things have to do with the complexity of the animal
-larger animals have more complexity
-body plans is the layout of the organism
Cambrian explosion:
-period of rapid evolution and diversification
-during this explosion groups of animals arose
-extant is the opposite of extinct
-warm and shallow seas in this period
-light is penetrating to the bottom of the sea
-oxygen enriched environment in the warm shallow seas
-100 phyla arose in this period
New design for living:
-Cambrian explosion
-34 major phyla of living multicellular animals with a distinct body plan
-Body plan:
-Regular arrangement of body structures relative to axis of the body
-Animals can be bisected along at least one plan
-significance?
-Ancestral body plans
-Constraining form of its descendants
Body plans: animal symmetry
1. Asymmetry
-no body axis and no plane of symmetry
-Protozoan
-Poriferans
2. Spherical symmetry
-Inficante number of plans of symmetry
-Sphere
-best suited for floating and rolling
-Rare, found only in protozoans
-sense/interact with environment from all directions
3. Radial symmetry
-body has a general form of a cylinder
-radial can be divided in more then two planes
-Biradial symmetry means that it can be divided in half
-jelly fish and sea anenimies
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4. Bilateral symmetry
-animals can be divided along a sagittal plane into 2 identical portions (left and right)
-Slicing your body in half
-Associated with cephalization (means having a head)
-major innovation
-controlled mobility
-Surfaces differentiate as dorsal (protection) and ventral (locomotion - feet)
-Better suited for directional movement (forward movement)
-sensing new environment as they are moving in to it
Animal body plans:
-Bilateral symmetry
-a variety of descriptive terms are used to describe orientation in bilateral animals
-Dorsal (back) and ventral (belly)
-Anterior (head) and posterior (tail)
Hierarchial organization of animal complexity:
-protozoa
-Unicellular animal like organisms
-Complete organism that conducts all basic functions of life
-Protozoan cell - complete organism
January 9th 2019
Fine grades of organization with animals and animal-like groups:
-Protoplasmic level of organization
-All life functions within single cells
-Differentiated organelles that perform specific functions
-Cellular level of organization
-Aggregation of cells exhibiting functional differentiation
-Division of labour between bells
-Cells not organized into tissues
-Cell-tissue level of organization
-Aggregation of cells into tissues
-Tissue-organ level of organization
-Organ-system level of organization
11 organ systems observed with in Metazoans:
-Digestive
-Circulatory
-Respiratort
-Immune
-Skeletal
-Endocrine
-Excretory
-Nervous
-Integumantayry
-Muscular
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