BI276- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 72 pages long!)

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BI276
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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September 21st 2017
Lecture 3 Continued- Chemical Principles in Microbiology
Chemical Principles in Microbiology
o Activities of microorganisms are result of series of chemical reactions
o Bacteria have net surface charge (negative charge under membrane) which help attach
to a lot of things
o Synthetic reactions:
Result in formation of particular product from reactants
Anabolism in living organisms
Example: A+B AB
A+B are allowing this to happen through enzymes
Want to gain energy
o Decomposition reactions:
Bonds are broken resulting in smaller molecules catabolism in living
organisms
E.g. AB A+B
A are enzyme produced by microorganisms
Example: chlorella (AB associate when they penetrate the host,
A=active organisms and upset osmotic balance in host) expel
water
o Exchange reactions:
Part synthesis and part decomposition
E.g. AB+CDAD+AB
Exchanging nutrition and energy
Look out for when reaction can be reversible
Energy Transfer: (recall)
Endergonic reactions:
o Absorbs more energy than it releases
o They are not doing this very often
Very graded
On occasion do this
Exergonic reactions:
o Releases more energy than it absorbs or requires
Recall:
o Inorganic compounds:
Small
Structurally simple
o Organic compounds:
Always contains carbon and hydrogen
More structurally complex- multiple copies of atoms
o Bacteria very fussy on how they attack compound** On test
It matters where halogens position on the ring
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September 21st 2017
Lecture 3 Continued- Chemical Principles in Microbiology
matters for bacteria the position and space
example; Cis and trans, ortho or para, or where the molecule is
based
chemical structures matter position in space
Physics on board:
V=4/3 π r3 Volume of Sphere
o Bacteria’s are spherical
S=4πr2-Surface area o
Surface to volume ratio
o Larger you are- Surface to volume ratio is decreasing
o Increasing radius decreases surface
S/V+ 4 πr2/ 4/3 πr3
=3/r
Bacteria have very high surface to volume ratio- since they are so small
As r decreases S/V increases
(Keep in mind)
Water:
Water= considered an ideal biological solvent
Vital to microorganisms:
o Facilitates nutrient transport across the cell membrane
Need aqueous solution
Average microbial contains: 70% water
Water acts as a good temperature buffer
o Offers protection to microbial cells against in environmental fluctuation
conditions (bacteria need all the help they can get for protection)
o Need some sort of buffer medium around them
pH
Most organisms grow best in pH ranges near neutrality
o 6.5-8.5 (research POV: 6.5-7.2)- vast majority
o the most protective pH for cell contents and chemical balances are optimized
o high pH breaks down and dissociate
bacteria adapt to acidic environment
Side: read Q carefully and she does not want to rick you
o generic questions- focus on Q
o Vast majority
natural buffers help maintain a constant pH in orgais’s microenvironment**
o hat atters is hat’s i THEIR icroeiroet (interannly)
Fungi prefer more acidic environments
Molds prefer acidic environment
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