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chapter 8.docx

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David Smith

4162013 72200 PM Cell Growth and Division and their coordination Chapter focuses on interplay between three cellular processes 1 DNA replication 2 Cytoskeleton dynamics 3 Cell cycle checkpointsCell Growth and Division All cells originate from preexisting cells through the process of cell division Important for Increasing population size singlecell organisms Growing new tissues new leaves Asexual reproduction mitosis Replacement of lost cells lining of gutThe Cycle of Cell Growth and Division An Overview During mitotic cell division DNA replication is followed by equal separation segregation of the replicated DNA molecules and their delivery to daughter cells Process ensures that two cell products of a division have the same genetic information as the parent cell entering division Mitosis Basis for Growth and maintenance of body mass in multicelled eukaryotes The reproduction of many singlecelled eukaryotes Cell cycle A period of growth followed by nuclear division and cytokinesis Chromosomes Chromosomes of eukaryotic cells are individual linear DNA molecules with associated proteins DNA replication and the duplication of chromosomal proteins convert each chromosome into a structure composed of two exact copies known as sister chromatids The Cell Cycle in Prokaryotic Organisms Replication occupies most of the cell cycle in rapidly dividing prokaryotic cells Replicated chromosomes are distributed actively to halves of the prokaryotic cell Mitosis has evolved from an early form of binary fission Binary Fission Prokaryotic cells undergo a cycle of binary fission involving coordinated cytoplasmic growth DNA replication and cell division producing two daughter cells from an original parent cell The Bacterial Cell Cycle Replication of the bacterial chromosome consumes most of the time in the cell cycle It begins at a single site called the origin of replication ori through reactions catalyzed by enzymes located in the middle of the cell Once the ori is duplicated the two origins actively migrate to the two ends of the cell Division of the cytoplasm then occurs through a partition of cell wall material that grows inward until the cell is separated into two parts
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