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Chapter 7 Photosynthesis.docx

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Matthew Smith

Chapter 7: Photosynthesis  Photosynthetic organisms: convert sunlight energy into chemical energy o Use energy to assemble complex organic molecules from inorganic raw materials  The organic molecules are then used as energy sources (but also used by energy source by other organisms)  Two part of photosynthesis o Calvin Cycle  Products from light reactions are converted to organic molecules o Light dependant reactions  Products: high energy electron carriers and ATP  These molecules are then used to drive the calvin cycle  Oxygenic photosynthesis: Water is the source of energy of the calvin cycle  Anoxygenic photosynthesis: first type of photosynthesis  Photosynthesis takes place on thylakoid in chloroplast in the mesophyll cell  Plastids are present in all plant cells o Chloroplasts o Chromoplasts o Amyloplasts  Plastid types are interconvertible o Depending on the tissue and environmental conditions, they are able to develop into other plastid type  Plasticity of Plastids o Varies in size, shape, content and function o Ex of plasticity of shape: chloroplasts send out tubular extensions called stromules, that serve to increase the SA and connect other plastids together  cpDNA: chloroplast genome contains around 120 genes o encodes proteins involved in photosynthesis of expression of chloroplast genes o multiple copies per organelle  Pigments: after excitation, one of three events occurs: o e- returens to ground state and energy is emitted (as heat or fluorescent light) o e- returns to ground state and energy transfers to another pigment (inductive resonance) o excited e- transferred to an accept  photoreduction  pigment molecule can become oxidized  Chlorophyll and carotenoids o Chlorophyll a: oxidized and donates e- to primary e- acceptor o Chlorophyll b and carotenoids are accessory pigments  Donates excitation energy to chlorophyll a via inductive resonance  Absorption spectra & action spectrum  Photosystems: where pigment molecules are located o Antenna complex: absorbs light energy and transfers it to chlorophyll a via inductive resonance o Reaction center: pair of specialized chlorophyll a molecules bound by proteins (P700 in PSI, P680 in PS11) and it is also a primary e- acceptor o Special chloroph
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