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Chapter 16– BI 111

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Tristan Long

Chapter 16 13-03-03 1:59 PM Microevolution: Small-scale genetic changes within populations, often in response to shifting environmental circumstances or change events. Population: all individuals of a single species that live together in the same place and time. Polymorphism: the existence of discrete variants of a character among individuals of a population. Gene Pool: the sum of all alleles at all gene loci (spot on the chromosome) in all individuals in a population. Genotype frequencies: the percentage of individuals in a population possessing a particular genotype. Phenotype frequencies: the percentage of individuals in a population possessing a particular phenotype. Allele frequencies: the abundance of one allele relative to others at the same gene locus in individuals of a population. Diploid: an organism or cell with two copies of each type of chromosome in its nucleus. Haploid: “” one copy of each… Null Model: a conceptual model that predicts what one would see if a particular factor had no effect. Genetic equilibrium Neutral mutations: are neither harmful nor helpful; may alter an organism’s phenotype without influencing the reproduction or survival. (may affect the organism later on if the environment changes) Deleterious mutations alter an individual’s structure, function, or behavior in harmful ways. (syndromes, weak bones) Le
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