Chapter 16 13-03-03 1:59 PM
Microevolution: Small-scale genetic changes within populations, often in
response to shifting environmental circumstances or change events.
Population: all individuals of a single species that live together in the same
place and time.
Polymorphism: the existence of discrete variants of a character among
individuals of a population.
Gene Pool: the sum of all alleles at all gene loci (spot on the chromosome)
in all individuals in a population.
Genotype frequencies: the percentage of individuals in a population
possessing a particular genotype.
Phenotype frequencies: the percentage of individuals in a population
possessing a particular phenotype.
Allele frequencies: the abundance of one allele relative to others at the
same gene locus in individuals of a population.
Diploid: an organism or cell with two copies of each type of chromosome in
Haploid: “” one copy of each…
Null Model: a conceptual model that predicts what one would see if a
particular factor had no effect.
Neutral mutations: are neither harmful nor helpful; may alter an
organism’s phenotype without influencing the reproduction or survival. (may
affect the organism later on if the environment changes)
Deleterious mutations alter an individual’s structure, function, or behavior in
harmful ways. (syndromes, weak bones) Le