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Chptr 18 BI 111

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Tristan Long

Chapter 18 13-03-03 1:59 PM Systematics: the branch of biology that studies the diversity of life and its evolutionary relationship. Phylogeny: the evolutionary history of a group of organisms. Phylogenetic tree: a branching diagram depicting the evolutionary relationships of groups of organisms. Taxonomic hierarchy: a system of classification based on arranging organisms into ever more inclusive categories. (traditional) Homologous structures: characteristics that are similar in two species because they are inherited the genetic basis of the trait from their common ancestor. Analogous (homoplasious) structures: structures that have the same function; phenotypic similarities that evolved separately in different lineages. Ancestral traits: a trait that was present in a distant common ancestor. Derived traits: a new version of a trait found in the most recent common ancestor of a group Assume the out group is a far back common ancestor… if the trait is the same as the outgroup, then the trait in ancestral… if
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