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Chptr 19 BI 111

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Tristan Long

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Chapter 19 13-03-03 1:59 PM Biological species concept: the definition of species based on the ability of populations to interbreed and produce fertile offspring. Problems: some species reproduce asexually.. so are these not species…? What about androdioecous organisms (all males) and gynogenetic organisms (all female) What about hybridization? Is the hybrid a new species? Are the two species one? Phylogenetic Species concept: defines a species as a group of organisms bound by a unique ancestry. Ecological species concept: defines a species as group of organisms that share a distinct ecological niche (occupy the same location with the same resources) Morphological species concept: is the idea that all individuals of a species share measureable traits that distinguish them from individuals of other species. There are total of 12 concepts Ring species: some plants and animals have ring shaped geographic distribution that surround uninhabitable terrain. Adjacent species of these ring species can exchange genetic material directly, but gene flow between distant populations occurs only through intermediary populations. Clinal (cline) variation: a pattern of smooth variation along the geographic gradient Usually results from gene flow between populations… you can “see” the evolution along a line…. Can be very different at the ends. Allopatry (allopatric speciation): the evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms between two populations that are geographically separated. Parapatry (parapatric speciation): speciation between populations with adjacent geographical distributions. Sympatry (sympatric speciation): speciation that occurs without the geographic isolation of populations Sympatric: occupying the same spaces at the same time Species cluster: a
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