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Midterm

Plants Midterm Review.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BI266
Professor
Mihai Costea
Semester
Fall

Description
Form and FunctionPlant Duration1 Herbaceous Plantsvery little woody tissue and are not able to survive in cooler temperaturesAnnualsingle growing season during which they germinate grow vegetatively form flowers produces fruits and seedsoA growing year is termed from spring to falloGerminate from seeds created in the precious seasonBiennialtwo year first year they grow vegetatively and second year produce flowersfruitsseedsoUsing reserves made in the previous years to produce the reproductive partsPerennial live for many years and usually fruit and flower yearly once plants get to maturityoVariantion in the life cycle of the plantoHave a survival strategy like underground bulbs or tubers stem modifications that play the role of a survival structure2 Woody Plantsperennial plants that have a large amount of lignin which allow them to survive through the seasonShrubsmultiple stems coming from one baseTresshave a single stem the trunkLianaswoody plants that cannot physically sustain themselves so they require additional support3 ExtremesEphemerallive for a very short amount of timehave an extremely accelerated life cycle that they complete in a matter of weeksGrow in terrible environmentsAre able to have several generations in the process of an annual which allows for faster evolutionMore mobileExtremely longvivremonocarpic plants that are perennial but only produce fruitflowers once then die in their last yearexample agaveTissue ClassificationMeristemsTissues that are responsible for producing through mitosis all the other tissues in the plants the least differentiated cellsSmall sixsided boxlike structures with no intercellular spaces thin walls ense protoplasm large nucleus small or no vacuoles and no differentiated plastids chloroplasts chromoplastsMeristematic ClassificationsoBased on their originPrimordialcome from the embryo an have the absolute potential to be anything In mature plants they are the apical meristemsPrimaryproduced by primordial meristems and generate primary tissues They are one more step differentiated and produce very specific tissuesThe seedling is formed from the primary meristemsCan only grow in elongationSecondaryformed from primary meristems through dedifferentiation produce secondary tissueoBased on their position in the plantApicalprimordial meristems that result in the primary grotheProtodermfound at or near the tips of roots and shootsGround meristemforms roots and shootsProcambiumform the mature internal tissues such as vascular tissueIntercalaryfound at the stem nodesDevelop at intervals and add to stem lengthLateralsecondary meristems that increase the girth of roots and stemsVascular cambiumdifferent mature cells in lateral position to produce thickness A line cylinder around the roots and stems that produce certain types of tissue from the interior to the exterior secondary xylem towards the interior and secondary phloem towards the exteriorCork Cambiumthin cylinder that runs the length of roots and stems Exterior to the VC forms the periderm which is the bark of the plantoProduces on its outer side layers of cork cells impregnated with suberin which are dead at maturity and on the inner side phelloderm a living parenchyma tissue The suberin gives the cells their impermeability and conserves heat top protect the internal temperatureSimple Tissueconsist of one type of cellParenchymathe most simplest common and abundant tissue or primary and secondary origin that has various roles and are produced by the meristems to acquire a certain functionoRegularnot as specializedoStoragemore specialized found in tubules roots or fruits that store starch and other sugarsoChlorenchymain leaves and contain chloroplastsoAerenchymaair these are in aquatic plants that act as air storage inside of the tissue
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