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Microbiology Study Notes.docx

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Hany Anany

02282014Basic Principals of MicrobiologyMicrobiology the study of single celled microscopic organisms including viruses revolves around two themesUnderstanding basic life processesExcellent models for understanding uni and multicellular organismsApplying this knowledge to the benefit of humansMedicine agriculture and industrycausal agents of diseaseDigestive processes recycling major nutrient elementsBacteria and plant working together at the roots to harvest ammonium from nitrogenthe pay off to the bacteria is sugarFood IndustryIndustry biofuelthose that are avle to produce methane and ethane Importance of microorganisms Oldest form of lifeLargest living mass on Earth5 x 1030Carry out necessary chemical reactions important to other organisms Can live in unsuitable places Other life forms require microbes to surviveHow oldEarth46 byaMicrobes38 to 239 myaAtmosphere anoxic until 2 byaLife was exclusively microbial unit 1byaMicrobial cellsCell A dynamic entity that forms the fundamental unit of lifeCytoplasmic membranea barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the external environmentCell WallPresent in most microbes confers structural strengthProperties of Living CellsALL Living cells Compartmentalization and MetabolismA cell is a compartment that takes up nutrients from the environment transforms them and releases the waste into the environmentMetabolism Taking nutrients and breaking them down to use the energyThe cell is an open systemReproductionGrowthChemicals from the environment are taken in and turned into new cells under the genetic direction of preexisting cellsEvolutionGenes evolve to display new biological properties these are generally selectively favorable and show an evolutionary relationshipMOST living cellsMotilitySome cells are capable of selfpropulsion
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