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Mid term review.pdf

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Roopa Reddy

Mid term review July-24-12 4:43 PM Introduction: What Is Communication Theory  different kinds of communication (oral, written, non-verbal, graphical, numerical, mass) Oral Communication: the form of communication which distinguishes humans from other animals; includes such things as interviews Written Communication: writing has become one of the most important form of communication underpinning human societies in the 21 century; includes notes to napkins Non-Verbal Communication: we often ‘read’ the ‘cues’ we get from the way people dress, their hand gestures, body positioning etc. Graphical Communication: an important part of understand the ways in which the symbolic and pictorial modes of graphics work; analyzing how images are put together and the ways in which they work to communicate particular messages Numerical Communication: understanding the ways in which numerical systems are applied; presentation and interpretation of numerical data Mass Communication: understanding the ways in which new technologies enable new means of presenting and integrating all the above  transmission model The transmission model Senders(s) message Medium message Receiver(s) Who-> says what-> channel-> to who-> what effect  cultural model what we communicate are meanings: information, news, and ideas but also emptions, beliefs, myths, values-culture -communication involves negotiating and exchanging such meanings, in order to make sense of-as well as influence and control ourselves, other people + reality -communication is always dialogical (runs both ways) -not always instrumental (with specific purpose in mind) -produces and shapes reality (doesn’t just reflect it) Cultural Model Constructs Media----------------------------------------Reality Constitutes  Harold Lasswell’s formula Harold Lasswell’s Formula (how communication works): -who; owns the mass communications media? -says what; -in which channel? -to whom? -with what effect? Ex. -a sender (who, professor) -a channel (or mode) (speech, whiteboard, website) -a meaningful message (eg. Lecture) -a receiver (to whom) (students) -a mutually understood code (eg. English language) -a context (large classroom, many students, university, city, province) -and effect or response (taking notes, listening, talking)  problems with the transmission model -too mechanistic -assumes that audience are completely passive, but active interpreters -may not always “read” in ways consistent with either content itself or producers always possibility of “miscommunication” -assumes communication is always instrumental and representational, that there is always a reason and strategic design or purpose -message always tells us something about or reflects the model -Canadian communications scholar James carey re: cultural model  five uses of communication (information gathering, storage, etc.; persuasion, propaganda, publicity; entertainment; socialization; individual attainment) -information gathering, storage, retrieval and dissemination; -persuasion, propaganda, and publicity -entertainment -socialization; reinforces norms of behaviour for groups and institutions and helps integrate individuals into groups -individual attainment; creative, personal growth, contributes to individual interactions in groups Mass Effect: Theories of Media, Popular & Academic  powerful effects theory (Hypodermic Needle): -media have immediate, direct influence -an intended message is directly received and accepted by the receiver -media injects its message straight into the passive audience -passive audience is immediately affected by these messages -public cannot escape from the media’s influence, considered a “sitting duck”  problems with powerful effects theory  third-person effect -theory of third-person-effect:people overestimate impact of media on others (but not -theory of third-person-effect:people overestimate impact of media on others (but not themselves). E.g. overwhelming conern about how children are affected by media  cumulative effects theory/spiral of silence (Novelle-Neumann): -nobody can escape either the media or the media’s messages, which are redundant -people who perceive that they are in a minority are inclined to speak out less, perhaps not at all -dominant views can snowball through the media and become consensus views without even being challenged -Spiral of Silence: minority views are intimidated into silence and obscurity  mass media and socialization media help people fit into society -media responsible for contemporary transmission of values, norms, etc.  intergenerational eavesdropping intergenerational eavesdropping: media have broken down traditional boundaries between generations -Joshua Meyrowitz; brought socialization effects of intergenerational eavesdropping to attention  cathartic effect watching violence allows individuals to release pent-up rage, frustration in harmless way  aggressive stimulation theory watching violence tends to increase violent behaviour  catalytic theory  desensitizing theory Towards a POlitical Economy of Mass Media  Marxist critique of capitalism capitalist society increasingly divided into two classes -capitalists own means of production, workers sell labour-power -workers are exploited by capitalists -workers are exploited by capitalists -workers are alienated under capitalism -capitalism plagued by economic crises, leading to unemployment, instability, etc. -workers will lead revolution against capitalist, found a new cooperative society  Ideology -works to support the economic relations in any given society -elites own/control state and media -able to determine and define dominant ideas=ideas serving their interests -ideas are presented as being in public interest  three different economic foundations of the mass media/revenue streams Advertising Revenues: -e.g. selling space in papers -they pay the mass media for access to potentialcustomers -advertisers by space from print media and time from broadcasters Circulation Revenues: -e.g. subscription fees -when income derived from the audience Government Subsidies: -e.g. Public funding of CBC -the CBC is mandated by the government to promote Canadian culture to Ca
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