Study Guides (238,586)
Canada (115,230)
Business (1,198)
BU208 (17)
n (1)

OB Part 3 Notes.docx

18 Pages
Unlock Document

Wilfrid Laurier University

Ch. 13 A Model Of Stress Textbook- MC Stressors: environment event/ conditions that have potential to induce stress- causes Stress: Psychological reaction making people tense/ feel anxious when they feel when unable to copy with demands Stress Reactions: behavioural psychological and physiological consequences of stress (may be passive with no control) Personality and Stress 1. Locus of Control -people’s believe on what factors control their behaviours (Internals vs Externals) - internals- more likely to confront stressors directly -externals- believe in fate, prone to short term anxiety reduction strategies 2. Type A Behaviour Pattern -aggressive and ambitious, hostility, time-urgency, competitiveness, tend to work longer hours, more conflicting work demands, repressed anger, distrust of others -strong need to control heir work environment …..more likely to feel stress 3. Negative Affectivity -See the world in a negative light, more pessimistic, more stressed out Stressors in Organizational Life 1. Executive/Managerial Stressors – people who have to make org.decisions and direct work Role Overload- too many tasks to do but too little time (few signpost showing that a task is complete and relaxation is allowed) Heavy Responsibility- important consequences for decisions made that affect people as well 2. Operative-Level Stressors- non-managerial jobs, may be crafts people to unskilled labourers Poor Physical Working Conditions- environment working conditions, cold pollution etc. Poor Job Design- if job scope is too high or too low for employee (too challenging or too easy) -Job Demands-Job Control Model: jobs w/ high demands but little control  STRESS ex. assembly line workers, bus drivers, nurse’s aides , lots to do little control 3. Boundary Role Stressors- people who have to interact with the public/ members of the organization -difficulties with the boundaries b/w organization and environment ex. salespeople making promises Burnout- emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and feeling reduced personal accomplishment -usually people who enter jobs with high ideals, wanting to change the world but reality hits - consequences: ppl pursue new occupation, new job, or stay with job as “dead wood” - emotional labour (regulating and suppressing self emotions (reduce neg, inc positive)..takes a toll on cognitive and emotional resources 4. General Stressors Interpersonal Conflict: conflict of personalities, group problems, bullying: repeated negative behaviour to one of lower power ….makes victim feel powerless thus causing stress Work-Family Conflict: a type of interrole conflict (one person, multiple roles) -problems with coordinating childcare and elderly care …and insensitive managers -women seen as disloyal who take time off work to deal with family issues Job Security/Change: fear of mergers, acquisitions, changing workplace, downsizing, fear of job loss Role Ambiguity: lack of direction proves stressful…. Goals/methods of job are unclear Sexual Harassment: usually women in male dominated workplaces Reactions to Organizational Stress 1. Behavioural Reactions: overt activities that a stressed individual uses in attempt to cope with stress a. Problem Solving: trying to terminate the stressor or reducing it potency , reality orientated, long term 1 i. Delegation: reduces stressing workload by delegating tasks to assistants ii. Time management: makes formal schedule, screen unimportant phone calls iii. Talking it out: resolving poor communication, clarifying projects iv. Asking for help: clarifying expectations v. Searching for alternatives: looking for better jobs if you’re bored b. Performance: stress reduces performance or can stimulate it (via motivation) for heavier workload, and responsibility (challenging stressors) ….but role ambiguity and interpersonal conflict always dec performance c. Withdrawal: withdrawing from the stressor (absence, turnover), fails to face stressor directly, short term solution only, when a person resigns in the spur of the moment with no thought it is due to withdrawal d. Use of Addictive Substances : leaves employees less physically and mentally prepared for jobs 2. Psychological Reactions: involves emotions and thought processes …most common reaction is defence mechanisms Defence mechanisms: psychological attempts to reduce the anxiety caused by stress …. Occasional use of them is beneficial …but if chronically used they do not actually change the stressor or root cause a. Rationalization: attributing socially acceptable reasons or motives to one’s actions so they appear reasonable to yourself b. Projection: attributing one’s own undesirable ideas and motives to others so that your own attributes seem less negative c. Displacement: directing feelings of anger at a “safe” target instead of in front of others where you’d be punished d. Reaction Formation: expressing yourself opposite to the way you truly feel to avoid negative reactions e. Compensation: applying one skill in a certain area to make up for failure in another area 3. Physiological Reactions : work stress has been associated with elevated levels of blood pressure, cholesterol and pulse, cardiovascular problems Reducing or Coping W/ Stress 1. Job Redesign- reduce stressful characteristics of a job… -operative lvl jobs  make more stimulating + challenging -service jobs increase autonomy …increases own personality less masks 2. Social Support- having close ties with other people…helps stress by raising self-esteem, providing useful info, offering comfort and humour , or even material resources (money)…. People with stronger network have better psychological and physical well-being, and cope more positively with stress… social network is a buffer against stress …the more connected the source is to the stress the more potent it is… 3. Family Friendly Human Resource Policies - to help deal with careers childcare and elderly care…. Example. Corporate daycare centers , more flexibility with family leave policies, job sharing 4. Stress Management Programs -help employees manage stress…. Teach mediation, time management, thinking more positively…may help physically mentally and help reduce physiological arousal, sleep disturbance etc. 5. Work-Life Balance Programs -variety of activities with healthy diet and physical activity helps reduce stress …used by companies as a retention tool (increases commitment and reduce turnover) Ch.9 Leadership Leadership: influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others -effective leadership enhances productivity, innovation, satisfaction and commitment of the work force 2 Research on Leadership Traits -Traits: individual characteristic : physical intellectual ability and personality (height, EQ IQ, agreeableness etc) -some traits associated with leadership, not all …. Emotional intelligence needed for leadership Limitations of the Trait Approach -do the traits make the leader or does the leader produce the traits? Cannot tell…. -fails to take into account the situation in which leadership occurs. -some traits associated with leadership success, but traits along do not make a successful leader -traits are only a prediction for certain actions that a leader must take to be successful Lessons from Emergent Leadership Task Leader: a leader whose most concerned with accomplishing the task at hand: dividing labour, getting organized , planning strategy Social-Emotional Leader: the most liked in the group, involves reducing tension, raising morale, settling arguments -usually both leadership roles by the same person, or can be by 2 ppl who get along together and respect -two leadership roles have different significance in diff. situations -the emergent leader is usually the one who talks the most Behaviour of Assigned Leaders Consideration and initiating Structure -Consideration: how approachable they are, shows personal concern and respect for employees -seen as friendly, supportive and protective ….related to social emotional leadership -strongly related to follower satisfaction, motivation Initiating Structure: degree leader concentrates on group goals…stressing standard procedures, work schedules -related to task function of emergency leadership -stronger relationship with job performance and group performance Situations: 1- under high pressure, unclear tasks, external treats  need initiating structure needed (stranded soldiers) 2.-task is intrinsically satisfying  reduce initiating and consideration (you love and know how to do your job) 3. Goals/methods of the job are very clear  reduce initiating structure (seen as redundant and unnecessary) 4. Employees lack knowledge of the job, or job is very vague need initiating structure (new astronaut recruit) Leader Reward Behaviour: Leader’s use of complements, tangible benefits and deserved special treatment -when made contingent on performance, employees should perform at a high lvl and have job satisfaction since they’ll understand that they’ll have positive outcomes if they meet expectations Leader Punishment Behaviour: use of reprimands, unfavourable task assignments and withholding of rewards -when perceived as random and not contingent on employee behaviour, employees reach negatively -BOTH must be contingent in order to be effective!!! Should result in positive perceptions of justice and lower role ambiguity Situational Theories of Leadership - Effectiveness of a leadership style is contingent on the setting …. Setting includes the employees and organizations characteristics , the nature of the task being performed - Leadership style must be tailored to the demands of the task and qualities of the employees 3 Fiedler’s Contingency Theory -association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the situation is for exerting influence ….some situations more favourable for leadership than others essentially 1. Leadership Orientation Least Preferred Co Worker Test (LPC) - have leaders describe their Least pref. coworker -leader who gives a high LPC score  relationship oriented …leader still finds positive qualities in worker despite difficulties working with them -leader who gives low LPC score task orientated… allows the low-task competence to color his/her views vies of the personal qualities of the worker -LPC score is NOT a measure of consideration or initiating structure -LPC score is an attitude of the leader toward work relationships 2. Situational Favourableness (Contingency): specifies when a particular LPC orientation is best suited for a situation -favourable leadership situations exists when the leader has a high degree of control and when the results of these controls are predictable (Best when there’s good leader-member relations, highly structured tasks and leader has a strong position power) i. Leader-member relations: better relationship b/w leader/follower allows more influence from them ii. Task Structure: the more structured the task the more influence the leader can exert iii. Position Power: the formal authority granted to the leader by the organization…the more power the more favourable the leadership situation 3. Contingency Model: - task orientation is best when the leadership position is  very favourable ( followers are ready to be influenced) or very unfavourable (necessary to get anything done) -relation orientation best when leadership position is  medium favourability (will help a stress invoking situation that is not impossibly bad) House’s Path Goal Theory -situations under which various leader behaviours are most effective -the effective leader connects the employees goals with the organizational goals -most important leader activity is to clarify the paths to various goals of interest to employees (ex. how do I get this promotion?) Leader Behaviour (4 Types) 1. Directive Behaviour: identical to initiating structure…. Schedule work, maintain performance standards 2. Supportive Behaviour: identical to consideration Friendly, approachable, concerned with relationships 3. Participative Behaviour: consulting with employees about matters and considering their opinions 4. Achievement-orientated behaviour: encourage high performance and to strive for high lvl goals …express confidence that employees can reach these goals Situational Factors (Employee characteristics and environmental factors) Employee characteristics - high goal achiever employees  achievement-orientated leadership - employees who like being told what to do  directive leadership style -employees feel they have low task abilities and want coaching  directive leadership *however if they are capable do NOT have directive , they’ll find it irritating Environment Factors (take advantage of motivating job aspects while offsetting/compensating demotivating job aspects) -tasks clear and routine (lower organizational lvls) 4  should not use directive or participative as its redundant and useless -challenging but ambiguous tasks (higher organizational lvls)  need both directive and participative … helps clarify the path and show that leaders care about helping -frustrating/dissatisfying jobs  supportive behaviour Participative Leadership: Involving Employees in Decisions -involving employees with decisions ….min: obtaining employee opinions….max: employees make their own decisions Advantages: 1- Motivation: allows employees to help contribute to the goals…helps increase intrinsic motivation by increasing autonomy and job variety 2- Quality: sometimes “2 heads are better than 1”… leader sometimes lack technical knowledge to make decision alone …. Participation empowers employees to take direct action to solve problems stead of checking every detail with boss 3-Acceptance of decisions: issues of fairness can be resolved by allowing them to participate Potential Problems: 1. Time + Energy: when quick decisions need to be made , this is a bad approach for leadership ex. hospitals 2. Loss of power: reduces leader’s power + influence… usually insecure managers use this…. but increases teamwork 3. Lack of receptivity or Knowledge: when leader is distrusted or poor labour climates exist Situational Model of Participation A-autocrative(yourself) C- Consultative(only relevant employees) G- Group (Everyone) I (individual) II( group involvement) Leader Member Exchange TMX Theory -relationship approach to leadership: focused on leader-follower relations - each relationship b/w leader and employee is unique … quality between them will be different -high quality relationships mutual influence, trust , loyalty, respect …employees are challenged and go above and beyond -low quality relationship low trust, respect, obligation and mutual support…. Leader provides little attention to employees and employees do the minimum role requirements -higher quality LMX relationships result in a number of positive outcomes for leaders, employees due to better job performance, lower role conflict and turnover retentions Transformational and Transactional Leadership Transactional leadership: fairly straightforward exchange between the leader and the followers… employees f=perform well and leader rewards them…. Based on contingent reward behaviour Management by Exception: leader takes corrective action based on the result of leader-follow transactions …taking action before a behaviour becomes a problem Transformational Leadership: providing followers with a new vision that instils true commitment …leader chances the beliefs and attitudes of followers to correspond to this new vision…achieve performance beyond expectations … create high quality LMX relationships THE BEST LEADER IS BOTH TRANSACTIONAL( ^ job performance) AND TRANSFORMATIONAL (^follower satisfaction) 5 4 Dimensions of Transformational Leadership 1. Intellectual stimulation: people stimulated to think about problems, issues and strategies in new ways…. Challenging the norm and taking risks 2. Individualized consideration: treating employees as distinct individuals…concerned for their personal needs in the context of the overall goal 3. Inspirational motivation: communication of visions that are appealing and inspiring to followers ….strong vision for the future based on values and ideals …stimulates enthusiasm, challenges followers, communicate optimism 4. Charisma (idealized influence, favoured or gifted): ability to command strong loyalty and devotion from followers and thus have the potential for strong influence on them …. Inspires enthusiastic dedication and effect towards the leader’s mission…. the emotional aspect of transformational leadership … -strongly related to follower satisfaction and leadership effectiveness, but relational w/ firm performance unclear -Darkside: leaders may abuse strong influence over others for purely personal reasons (adolf Hitler, jim jones) Strategic Leadership Strat. Leadership: leader’s ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, work with others to initiate changes for a better future for the organization ….help provide sustainable competitive advantages, and exploiting growth opportunities 6 Components of Strategic Leadership 1. Determining the firms purpose or vision: need clear vision and provide guidelines on how to get there 2. Exploiting and maintaining core competencies (resources and capabilities that provide org. w/ competitive advantages) 3. Developing Human Capital: knowledge and skills of the workforce…. Invest in their training….they’re a critical resource 4. Sustaining an effective org. culture: can be a source of competitive advantage…based on the shared beliefs, values 5. Emphasizing ethical practices: establish ethical principles and practices that are the norm and foundation for decisions 6. Establishing balanced organizational controls: establish formal procedures to guide work towards achieving objectives Cultures and Global Leadership Implicit Leadership Theory: individuals hold a set of beliefs about the kind of attributes, personality skills, and behaviours that make a good leader (this varies across cultures…ppl have diff ideas as to what good leaders are) …based on 9 different cultural dimensions Six Global Leadership Dimensions: 1. Charismatic/Value-based- reflects ability to inspire motivate, expect high performance 2. Team-Oriented – emphasizes team building implementation of common purpose or goal among team 3. Participative – degree in which they involve others in making decisions 4. Humane-Orientated- supportive and considerate leadership…generosity compassion 5. Autonomous 6. Self-Protective Universal Leadership Qualities (applies to all cultures) - demonstrating trustworthiness, a sense of justice, and honesty , having foresight and planning ahead, encouraging …motivating, being communicative and team integrator Universal Impediments to Leadership ( bad in all cultures) - being a loner and asocial, being irritable and uncooperative, imposing your views on others Culturally contingent (varies across cultures) -being individualistic, being constantly conscious of status, taking risks 6 Global Leadership Global leadership: leadership capabilities to function effectively in different cultures…. Ability to influence ppl who are not like the leader and come from different cultural backgrounds…must be flexible and tolerate high ambiguity…usually the are born and then made (must identify the right people and develop them)…must have extensive experiences 4 Characteristics of A Global Leader 1. Unbridled inquisitiveness…must love seeing and experiencing new things 2. Personal character…. Emotional connection to people and uncompromising integrity ….creates trust 3. Duality: must be able to balance local and global demands 4. Savvy: well informed about whats going on the business and organization Ethical Leadership Leader must be ethical with out they exert their influence over others …involves the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct (openness and honesty) through personal actions and interpersonal relationships …. Considers the ethical consequences of their decisions that can be observed and emulated by others …ethical conduct of employees are a result of ethical practices and behaviour of its leaders… 1. Communicate a clear and consistence positive ethics message from the top 2. Create and embrace opportunities for everyone in the organization to communicate positive ethics and practices 3. Ensure consequences for ethical and unethical conduct ….rewards and punishments applied appropriately Results: - employees more willing to devote extra effort to one’s jobs and more willing to report problems to management Gender and Leadership Style Women- more intuitive, less hierarchically orientated and more collaborative than men …more participative and democratic than men …have better social skills to successfully manage the give-taken participation requires …. Also they avoid the autocratic style since it violates their gender stereotypes and lead to negative reactions ….women found to be more transformational than men leaders and also engaged more of the contingent reward behaviours associated with transactional leadership Men- more management by exception, and lassez=faire leadership (avoidance / absence of leadership) OVERAL: women exceed men on all positively related leadership effectiveness aspects Chapter 10 Communication Communication: Process by which information is exchanged between a sender and receiver -sender must encode their thoughts into some form to be transmitted to receiver Sender : thought encoding transmitting -receiver must perceive the message and accurately decode it to achieve understanding Receiver: Perceiving  Decoding Understanding -coding and decoding prone to error when message is ambiguous or emotional Effective Communication: when the right people receive the right information in a timely manger -need all 3 components to be effective 7 Basics of Organizational Communication Organizations have chain of command: lines of authority and formal reporting relationships 3 Types of Communication for this chain (formal communication sometimes incomplete/ineffective) 1. Downward Communication: flows from top of organization to the bottom…usually tasks/instructions 2. Upward Communication: flows from bottom to top…. Usually reports, new ideas 3. Horizontal Communication: information between departments and functional units…for coordination Cons in the Chain of Command 1. Informal Communication: chain doesn’t include this…. This helps people accomplish their jobs more effectively but this is also bad since it may spread inaccurate rumours across the organization 2. Filtering: tendency for a message to be watered down or stopped during transmission …double edged sword….since filtering is good when unnecessary details are discarded but sometimes the right information is discarded -upward filtering: employees afraid boss might use information against them -downward filtering: often due to time pressures, lack of attention of sinister motives -filtering increases the larger the chain is… Open door Policy: allows employees to communicate with manager without going through the chain 3. Slowness: not good for reacting quickly to problems… Summary: because of these 3 problems, organization will develop better channels of communication beyond strict chain of command Manager Employee Communication Managers and employees often differ in their perceptions of the following issues: - how employees allocate time, how long it takes to learn a job, importance of pay to employee, amount of authority employee has, employee’s skill and ability, manager’s leadership style, employees performance and obstacles -these perceptual differences show a lack of openness in communication, contributing to role conflict and ambiguity Barriers to Effective Manager-Employee communication - differences in personality and perception along with….. 1. Conflicting Role Demands: difficulty balancing task and social-emotional functions as a leader 2. Mum Effect: tendency to avoid communicating unfavourable news to others -afraid of provoking negative reactions from the receiver whether or not the sender is responsible for said bad news -employees with strong aspirations to raise up more likely to do this to impress boss -bosses also without bad info… employees with good ratings more likely to be told so… The Grapevine -An informal communication network that exists in any organization.. -can be transmitted through many means, notes, emails faxes etc. -organizations usually have more than one grapevines (different inner circles) - can transmit relevant information about the organization and/or personal gossip -net effect: the more that know the more that tell -extraverts, those with a lack of self esteem , physical location, type of information all affect who participates in grapevine PROS -keeps employees informed about important org. matters ex. job security -provide a test of employee reactions to proposed changes without making formal commitments…probing potential /reactions acceptance of an idea 8 -adds interest and diversion to the work setting CONS - when rumours constantly being spread….. unverified beliefs that are in general circulation… information distorted as its passed along -rumours spread the fastest/farthest when the info is especially ambiguous, content of rumour is important, rumour seems credible,, and when the recipient is anxious Verbal Language of Work Jargon- specialized language used by job holders or members of particular occupations or organizations -is efficient means of communicating with peers and shows a bit of status to those who mastered the jargon -CON: serves as a barrier to communicating with others outside the organization or profession Nonverbal Language of Work Non verbal communication: transmission of messages by some medium other than speech/writing…. They’re powerful as they convey one’s true thoughts as words serve as a smoke screen Body Language: communication occurring by means of the sender’s bodily motions and facial expressions or the senders physical location in relation to the receiver …difficult to regulate non verbal behaviour when we feel strong emotions …one’s body language could give the edge to applicants who are otherwise equally qualified -senders communicate liking and interest in the receiver when they…. - position themselves physically close to the receiver …lean forward during the interaction -touch the receiver during the interaction… direct the torso to the receiver -maintain eye contact with the receiver -senders who feel themselves as higher status are more relaxed….Relaxation is shown by…. - casual asymmetrical placement of arms and legs - reclining non-erect seating position, lack of fidgeting and nervous activity -the greater the difference of relaxation b/w two parties communicates the status difference Office Décor / Arrangements: how ppl decorate and arrange their office tells them a bit about the occupant - professors more positively perceived with a tidy office, table against wall, plants and posters -neatness cue for conscientiousness and distinctive décor for openness Clothing : receivers unconsciously attach certain stereotyped meanings to various clothing and then treat the wearer accordingly ….. clothing signals about their competence, seriousness and their promo ability -more masculine dressed women more likely to be hired for executive jobs…however too masculine is damaging - clothing has impact on the wearer’s own self image, could enhance self esteem and self confidence to a degree Gen
More Less

Related notes for BU208

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.