week 1 Bu208
Successful Communication is when we consider results we want; adopt our message to meet
the needs of our audience.
business Communication : Effective and efficient way to advance their day to day tasks
involved in business dealings.
Oral Communication : Medium: face to face, telephone
Format: space, time
Style: Language, eye contact, facial expression body language
Tone: friendly and polite.
Written Communication: Medium: Email, memos and letters
Format: Defined by organization/software
Style: Concrete language, short sentences and paragraphs
Tone: Polite but neutral
Business Communications 3 Purposes
- to inform
-to Request or persuade
- to build goodwill
Managerial Positions : Required to write memos and emails; must work productivity in groups.
Trades People and technicians: will write incident reports and instructions.
Junior Engineers: are required to manage projects and write reports.
Poor Writing :
- takes more time to read and interpret
- requires more time for revision
- confuses and irritates the reader
- delays action
- saves time
- saves money
- saves eergy
- Builds Goodwill
Effective Messages meet 5 criteria : Clear, Concise, Comprehensive, Complete, Correct
What are your Purposes in writing ?
Who is your Audience?
What Information must you include?
What reader Benefits can you include?
What Objections can you expect?
How will Context influence response? Week 2
Five kinds of Audiences:
Initial: the first to receive the message
Primary: Decides whether to accept or act on the message
Secondary: comments on the message or implements recommedations.
Gatekeeper: Has the power to stop the message
WatchDog: Has power and may base actions on the message.
6 stages of the Communication Process:
Think> Encode> Transmit> Perceive> Decode> Understand
- Things to consider after analyzing an audience.. Individuals and Groups.
- knowledge of the topic
- Attitudes, values, and beliefs.
- Social groups
- Political associations
- socio-economic class
Definition - groups of people who share assumptions about channels, formats, styles, topics to
discuss, how to discuss topics, and what constitutes evidence.
Behavioural norms in organizations are revealed: Verbally ( myths, stories and heroes)
Non Verbally ( allocation of space, money and
Focus your message on Gatekeepers and Decision makers when it comes to:
- make use of multiple channels ( verbal and non verbal ) - Content and choice of details organization , level of language, technical terms and theory .
-in person, writing, speaking, electronic, use of time and space, gesturing.
Pros: Written : permanent records Cons: time consuming; permanent for all to see
Oral : Easier more efficient - jeopardizes meaning and morale.
Feature: A part of the product service.
Benefit: results from using the Feature
Good Reader Benefits are :
- Adapted to your audience
- Based on Built in advantages
- supported dearly and comprehensively
- phrased using you-attitude
You- Attitude: a way of communicating that demonstrates your ability to see another point of
view; to show empathy.
you- attitude writing means making conscious choices about: Appearance/ Layout/ Content.
Build Goodwill with organization, content and style/tone.
Kinds of presentations>
informative → Inform or teach the audience.
Persuasive or sales → Motivate the audience to act or believe.
Goodwill → Entertain and Validate the audience.
The 3-P Strategy
1, Plan → use PAIBOC
2. Prepare → Stories examples relevant to your audience.
3. Practice → until you are completely comfortable with the content. 5 Standard Patterns of Organization
Chronological - start with the past, move to the present, end looking to the future.
problem.cause.solution - explain symptoms of the problem, identify its causes, and suggest a
Exclude Alternatives- obious solutions first, show why they wont work. End by discussing a
solution that will.
Pros/Cons - presenting a balanced view
1-2-3 - good for short informative briefings.
Transitions: create flow in your presentation by bridging ideas.
Effective Presentation Visuals:
- Use a sans- serif font
- use a Large point type
- use clear illustrations
- make one main point per visual
- give each slide a title ( headers)
- keep text limited, concise.
White space →
- use headings and subheadings.
- use a mix of paragraph lengths
- use lists
- use tabs or indent tools to vertically align text
- use #’d lists when number of sequenece is exact
- use bulleted lists when orde is not important.
Paralleslim: creates coherence and flow of ideas.
Culture is a learned set of assumptions; shapes our perception of the world:
- attitudes - Behaviours
High- Context - most info is inferred from the context of a message.
Low- Context - context is less important; most info is explicitly spelled out.
Low Context Cultures - messages very literal; meaning in the message more than in context.
North America, Europe (west)
High Context Cultures - messages not literal; meaning in the context more than in message.
most of Asia, South America, Europe (south)
Non-Verbal Communication ( culturally learned)
- Body Language
- Eye Contact
- Spatial arrangments
- Clothing, colour, age, height.
* Women hold 14.4% of corperate offiicer poositions
* 35% higher return on equity and a 34% greater return to shareholders.
- older people are viewed ( inacurately) as:
- Less productive
- More Ridged and dogmatic
- Less creative
- Less adaptable
- less logical
- more honest, dependable, trustworthy.
Age stereotypes affect: Hiring, promotion and skills development.
Principle of good design: Form follows function.
Letters are sent to people outside the company.
Memos are sent to people within the company.
Mixed Punctuation: a colon follows the salutation, and a comma follows the close.
Open Punctuation: no punctuation following the salutation and the close. Standard memo- no salutation, close, or signature.
no paragraph identation
use headings as reuired
Netiquette - keep it concise
Never send angry msgs.
Send cards ( for condolences or congratulations)
Typical Business worker:
Send and receives 110 emails per day.
equal to 13 hours of emailing a week.
“ Good News”
- to give information, good news, or to reassure them.
- to have the reader understand or view info positvely.
- to deemphasize any negative elements.
- to reduce or eliminate further correspondence.
- to build a good image of the writer and their organization,
- to build a good relationship between writer and reader.
- Who was present
- What was discussed
- What was decided
- Who does what next.
9% customers who were displeased but did not complain said they would buy from the
82% of customers who were displeased complained, were helped and quickly attended to said
they would buy from the company again.
When organizing informative and positive messages
>Goodwill Ending< Bad News messages: costs the reader comfort, time, money, esteem or resources.
- to give the reader bad news
- to have the reader read, understand and accept the message.
- to maintan as much goodwill as possible.
- to ensure reader that they have to be taken seriously
- to assure that your decision is fair and reasonable
- they would make the same decision if they were in your shoes.
When organizing bad news
- alternative or compromise
- goodwill closing
- reason or explanation
- negative message
Buffer: a neutral or positive statement that allows you to delay the negative.
When to use:
- the reader values harmony
- it can serve another purpose
When not to use:
- reader might ignore because of bland first paragraph.
- if reader won't take no for an answer.
Persuasive Message-All successful