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OB Midterm Review.docx

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Jennifer Komar

OB Final Review Class 1 – Lecture What is OB? OB: The study of attitudes and behaviours of people in organizations Organizations are: a) Social inventions b) For accomplishing goals c) Through group effort What is the difference between OB and HR? OB – The “intangibles of a job” - Motivation - Leadership HR – The job related aspects - Training - Health and safety What we do in OB Predict -> Explain -> Manage (P.E.M.) Why study OB? - Makes organizations better places to work - Makes jobs motivating and satisfying - Makes organizations work better - Helps managers better manage - Impacts the quality of our lives OB helps people: - Make better decisions - Negotiate for better outcomes OB helps managers - Assemble better teams - Motivate employees - Avoid undermining employees - Spend more time working on business goals and less on people issues OB helps employees - Manage themselves Class 2 – Lecture Research process Question  Literature Review  Hypothesis  Design Study  Collect Data  Interpretation Research Methodologies Types: Observational Research – Researcher watches and listens to people in a natural setting Correlational – Researcher measures 2 or more variables Experimental research – Researcher manipulates a variable(s), holds other variable(s) constant, and measures the outcome Uses OR –useful when the goal is to understand a complex or unknown phenomena - It can only be used to study behaviour (not “cognitive” variables such as attitude) - Rarely used in OB CR – useful when you want to know if there is a relationship between two or more specific variables that can be measured - MOST common type of research in OB ER – Most useful type for truly investigating cause and effect - Best choice for research if you can manipulate and control variables Materials OR – Researcher’s eyes and ears CR – valid and reliable questionnaires ER – Two or more groups or before/after design - Experimental manipulation (different instructions) - Valid and reliable questionnaire Data Collected OR – Notes of what is observed - Often summarized in a case study CR – Scores on a questionnaire - Analyzed using statistics (correlational analysis regression, structural evaluation modeling, etc) ER – Scores on questionnaires - Analyzed using statistics (T-tests, analysis of variance, regression) Interpretation OR – Researcher draws careful conclusions based only on what is observed, refraining from inferences that go too far beyond observations CR – significant result means that variables are correlated (one changes, the other changes) ER – Significant result means that X caused Y Interpretation issues OR – Researcher biases may (unintentionally) impact what the researcher observes and interprets CR – correlation does not imply causation - Can’t tell if X causes Y or Y causes X, or third variable might explain or influence the relationship ER- Internal Validity- How confident are you that results are actually due to the independent variable? Could another explanation be possible? Class 3 – Lecture Employee Behaviours Task performance – employee behaviours that are directly involved in the transformation of organizational resources into the goods or services that an organization produces Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) – voluntary behaviour that contributes to organizational effectiveness - Actions that are not required but should do to go above and beyond Counter productive work behaviour (CWB) – behaviour that intentionally hinders organizational goal accomplishment - Purposely working slowly (production deviance) - Sabotage - Abuse against others - Theft Withdrawal – Lateness  Absenteeism  Turnover - Escaping from the workplace Organizational Commitment Affective – staying with the company because you identify with it and are involved - I want to stay Continuance – Staying with a company because it would be costly to leave (ex. No other job prospects, would love good benefits, would have to move) - I have to stay Normative – staying with a company because of a perceived obligation to do so (ex. should stay because company paid for education, value their mission, feel a sense of loyalty) - I should stay Attitudes: evaluations of a specific target - The degree to which we like some specific thing Attitudes often predict behaviour & choices - If we like or dislike something, we should engage in behaviours that are consistent with that evaluation Theory of planned behaviour Organizational Justice Distributive Justice – was the outcome I received fair Procedural Justice – were the decision making procedures fair Interactional Justice – was I treated fairly? Equity Theory My inputs = Other’s Inputs My Outcomes = Other’s outcomes Class 4 – Lecture Personality: is the characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his/her environment, and how he/she feels, thinks and behaves The Big 5 Personality Traits Extraversion Emotional Stability Agreeableness Conscientiousness Openness to Experience Other traits Locus of control – Beliefs about how one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces - High  belief that behaviour is caused by internal forces, like the person’s choices, initiative and effort - Low  belief that behaviour is caused by external forces, like fate, like or chance Self-esteem – The degree to which one has a positive self-evaluation Self-monitoring – the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear in social settings and relationships Core self-evaluations comprised of: self-esteem, self-efficacy, locus of control, emotional stability/neuroticism What causes behaviour? Dispositional approach – personality traits are the cause for someone’s actions Situational approach – the situation dictates someone’s behaviour Entrepreneurs: have higher conscientiousness and openness to experience and lower neuroticism and agreeableness Operant Learning Theory Positive reinforcement – Pleasant thing happened Extinction – Pleasant thing didn’t happen Punishment – Unpleasant thing happened Negative reinforcement – Unpleasant thing stopped Class 5 - Lecture Social Cognitive Theory Observational theory – observing imitating the behaviours of others Self-efficacy – belief about one’s ability to perform specific task - Influenced by observing others, performing the task, verbal persuasion and psychological state Self-regulation – set goals; work towards goals - Observe, evaluate, change one’s own behaviour Contingencies Self-regulation is the most effective for high-performance when: - Behaviour is under voluntary control - Self-efficacy is high - We have accurate feedback about behaviour - An individual: o Pays attention to behaviour o Is fairly unbiased in their evaluation of their own behaviour o Has internal locus of control Effective training using social cognitive theory - Provide a role model displaying the effective behaviours o The role model’s behaviour can be used a standard to inform the proper goal to set in self- regulation o Seeing the role model can increase self-efficacy - Provide opportunities for trainees to practice using those behaviours o Increases self-efficacy - Provide feedback to trainees following practice o Necessary for self-regulation o Influences self-efficacy Class 6 Biases in person perception Primacy – first meeting the person Recency – what they did recently Reliance on central traits – characteristics of a person that are of interest to perceiver Implicit personality theories – personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together Projection – own thoughts onto other Stereotyping – generalize about people in a social category and ignore variations among them Attribution – the process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behaviours Performance Rating Bias Leniency – Tendency to perceive the job performance of rates as especially good Harshness – Perceive job performance of rates as especially ineffective Central tendency – rate everyone in the middle Halo effect – rating of one trait affects others Similar-to-me effect – rater gives more favourable evaluations to people who are similar to rater Attribution We need to make judgements about people in order to figure out if we can trust them - Personality, values, priorities, attitudes, capabilities Ability/Benevolence/IntegrityTrustPut your faith in someone 1. Consistency – consistently act this way a. Yes (high consistency) – the person was responsible b. No (low consistency) – the situation was responsible 2. Consensus – same for all people in situation a. No (low consensus) – the person was responsible b. Yes (high consensus) – the situation was responsible 3. Distinctiveness – this person act this way always a. Yes (low distinctiveness) – the person was responsible b. No (high distinctiveness) – the situation was responsible Attribution Biases We do not perceive and weigh consistency, consensus and distinctiveness cues accurately Fundamental attribution error - tendency to place an undue heavy emphasis on internal characteristics to explain someone else's behavior in a given situation Actor- observer effect - When people judge their own behavior, and they are the actor, they are more likely to attribute their actions to the particular situation than to a generalization about their personality. Yet when an observer is explaining the behavior of another person (the actor), they are more likely to attribute this behavior to the actors’ overall disposition rather than to situational factors. Self-serving bias - any cognitive or perceptual process that is distorted by the need to maintain and enhance self esteem Zero-Acquaintance Trait Inferences - Without meeting a person face to face, make personality inferences from office/bedroom/email-address Textbook MONEY AS A MOTIVATOR (pay is the most effective/important motivator of performance) Production Jobs Piece rate: pay system in which individual workers are paid a certain sum of money for each unit of production -Pure piece rate: system in whereby workers are paid a basic hourly wage AND a piece-rate on top Wage incentive plans: various systems that link pay to performance on production jobs (to increase productivity) -Problems: • Lowered quality (they try and work faster) • Differential opportunity (workers have different opportunity to produce at a high level) • Reduced cooperation (workers might hoard materials from others and be selfish, maybe not maintain machines) • Incompatible job design (when in teams you cant award individuals) • Restriction of productivity (artificial limitation of work output that can occur under wage incentives- >workers come to an agreement of what is a ‘fair’ days of work) White-collar jobs Merit pay plans: systems that attempt to link pay to performance on white-collar jobs -periodically (yearly) managers evaluate/rate worker and pay them accordingly -greater frequency than wage incentives -used to attract and retain employees as an alternative to wage increase Problems: • Low discrimination (managers may not be able to distinguish btw good and bad performers) • Small increases (too small to be effective, when spread over year) lump sum bonus: merit pay that is awarded in a single payment and not built into base pay • Pay secrecy (ppl can’t compare their pay with others) *managers tend to underestimate their superiors pay and overestimate their employees pay Pay to motivate teamwork • Profit sharing: the return of some company profit to employees in the form of a cash bonus or a retirement supplement -Problem: factors beyond control can affect profits no matter how well performed • Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPS): incentive plans that allow employees to own a set amount of shares and provide employees with a stake in the company’s future earnings and success -increase loyalty/motivation, outperform those without, best in small organizations • Gain sharing: a group pay incentive plan based on productivity or performance improvements over which the workforce has some control (includes reduction in cost of labour, material, or supplies) Builds trust/commitment, aligns company and individual goals, cost is divided • Skill-based pay: ppl are paid according to number of job skills they’ve acquired -motivates workers to learn -for flexible manufacturing, rapid changes in demand, but costs of training JOB DESIGN AS A MOTIVATOR Job design: structure, content, and configuration of a person’s work tasks and roles Job Scope: the breadth and depth of a job -Breadth: number of different activities performed on a job -Depth: the degree of discretion or control a worker has over how work tasks are preformed High scope: (broad and deep) intrinsic motivation, can fulfill higher order needs Low scope: (traditional assembly line), ‘shallow’ and ‘narrow’, a single task is a ritual *to increase scope of job, assign stretch assignments (challenging opportunities to broaden their skills) Job rotation: increasing scope of employees job Job characteristic model (have psychological impact on workers) • Core job characteristics -skill variety: opportunity to do a variety of job activities using various skills and talents -autonomy: the freedom to schedule one’s own work activities and decide work procedures -Task significance: the impact that a job has on other people -Task identity: the extent to which a job involves doing a complete piece of work, from beginning to end -Feedback: info about the effectiveness of one’s work performance motivating potential score= (variety+ identity+ significance)/3*autonomy*feedback • Critical psychological state: work is motivating when it’s perceived as meaningful, when worker feels responsible for outcomes, and when worker has knowledge about their progress • Outcomes: when worker is truly in control of a challenging job that provides good feedback about performance • Moderators: moderator/contingency variables that intervene btw job characteristics (ex. job relevant knowledge and skill of worker) -growth needs strength: extend to which ppl desire to achieve higher-order need satisfaction by performing their jobs • Research evidence: workers tend to respond more favourably to jobs that are higher in motivating potential -related to behavioral and well-being -Strong support for role of experienced meaningfulness but less support for experienced responsibility • Job Enrichment: the design of jobs to enhance intrinsic motivation, quality of working life and job involvement -job involvement: a cognitive state of psychological identification which one’s job the importance of work to one’s total self-image -challenging and enriched jobs have higher job involvement/commitment/satisfaction combining tasks: each worker does uniform task from start to finish establishing external client relationships: putting employees in touch with ppl outside organization establishing internal client relationships: putting employees in touch with ppl who depend on their products within organization reducing supervision or reliance on others forming work teams: ‘small’ jobs that individual workers preform when a product is too large for one person to do alone Making feedback more direct: permit workers to be identified with their own product Problems with job enrichment: • Poor diagnosis: of needs of organization job enlargement: increasing job breadth by giving employees more tasks at the same level to preform but leaving other core characteristics unchanged. (leads to overworking and boring) • Lack of desire or skill (some don’t want enriched job, and some cant= training) • Demand for rewards (harder work? We want more rewards) • Union resistance (unions equate narrow division of labour with persevering jobs for their members, more flexibility and combining tasks) • Supervisory resistance (enrichment in employees could lead to “diss-enrich” of the boss’ job New developments in job design (job characteristics were criticized for being too narrow) • Work design. Work design characteristics: attributes of the task, job, and social and organizational environment -task characteristics: how work is accomplished and the range of nature of tasks associated with it -knowledge characteristics: knowledge, skill, and ability demands that are placed on an individual as a function of what is done on the job -social characteristics: interpersonal and social aspects of work -contextual characteristics: the context within which work is performed including the physical and environmental contexts *social characteristics are stronger related to outcomes than motivations • Relational job design. -Prosocial motivation: desire to expend effort to benefit other ppl -relational architecture of jobs: structure properties of work that shape employees opportunities to connect and interact with other ppl (basically jobs are designed so employees can see impact of actions on others) Management by objectives (MBO): an elaborate, systematic, ongoing program designed to facilitate foal establishment, goal accomplishment, and employee development 1. Manager meets with individual worker and agrees on objectives, time frames, and priorities 2. Periodic meetings to monitor progress 3. Meeting to evaluate the extent to which objectives have been met 4. Repeated Alternative working schedules as motivators for a diverse workforce Flex time: alternative work schedule in which arrival and departure times are flexible -reduces absenteeism, positive attitudes, increase in productivity, increase in satisfaction, gains trust, most frequent, limited to only white-collar jobs Compressed work week: alternative work schedule in which employees work fewer than normal 5 days a week by still put in normal hours per week -better for family life, increased fatigue, increase satisfaction Job work sharing Job sharing: an alternative work schedule in which two part-time employees divide the work of a full-time job Work sharing: reducing the number of hours employees work to avoid layoffs when there is a reduction in normal business activity Telecommuting: a system by which employees are able to work at home but stay in touch with their offices through the use of communications technology, such as a computer network, voice mail, and electronic messages -changes in way of recruitment, regardless of where they live through distant staffing -distributed work programs: combination of remote work arrangements that allow employees to work at their business office, satellite office, and a home office -improve work-life balance and increase productivity, job satisfaction, performance, lower stress and lower turnover -decrease visibility, negative effect on relationships, distractions at home, and concerns about trust Class 7 (Groups and Teamwork) Group – Two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal Additive Task – Performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual group members Disjunctive Task – Performance is dependent on the most skilled group member Group Cohesiveness What is cohesiveness? - The degree to which members really want to be part of the group Cohesiveness and effectiveness - Cohesiveness is not the same thing as effectiveness - Typically, cohesive teams will be more successful Members of highly cohesive groups participate and conform to group norms Highly cohesive groups are more effective at achieving their goals, which may or may not be aligned with the organization’s goals Groups develop and change over time due to 2 models: Stages model – Forming, group members try to orient themselves by “testing the waters” - storming, conflict in sorting out rules - norming, members resolve conflicts and a social structure is developed - performing, the group devotes its energy towards task accomplishment - adjourning, group ends, members part  more likely when group members do not know one another Punctuated Equilibrium – a model of group development that describes how groups with deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions o Phase 1 – first meeting, set agenda, very little progress is made until midpoint o Midpoint Transition – occurs at almost exactly the halfway point in time towards
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