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Organization Behaviour Final Exam Notes.docx

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Department
Business
Course
BU288
Professor
Laurie Barclay
Semester
Fall

Description
Organization Behaviour Final Exam Notes Chapter 1 – Organizational Behaviour and Management  What are organizations? o Social inventions for accomplishing goals  Social inventions – the coordinated presence of people, not necessarily things  Goal accomplishment – individuals are assembled into organizations for a reason  Group effort – organizations depend on interaction and coordination among people to accomplish goals  What is organizational behaviour? o Attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in an organization  Why study organizational behaviour? o It is about people and human nature o What happens in organizations effects people o Makes a difference in company performance  Goals of organizational behaviour o To predict, explain and manage behaviour  Management is the act of accomplishing in organizations through others  Early Prescriptions Concerning Management o Classical viewpoint – advocates high specialization of labour, intensive coordination and centralised decision making. Founders: Henri Fayol, James D. Mooney, Lyndall Urwick o Scientific management – using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks. Founder:n Frederick Taylor o Bureaucracy – type of organization that includes strict chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, selection and promotion based on technical competence o Hawthorne studies – research conducted on the Hawthorne plant of Western Europe near Chicago in the 1920’s and 1930’s illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment o Human relations movement – a critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented towards employee needs  Contemporary Management o Contingency approach – recognize that there is not one best way to manage, and that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation  What do managers do? o Managerial roles by Henri Mintzberg  Establish and maintain interpersonal relations (figurehead, leader, liaison)  Receive and transmit information (monitor, disseminator, spokesperson)  Turn problems and opportunities into plans for improved changes (entrepreneur, resource allocator, negotiator) o Managerial activities by Fred Luthans, Richard Hodgetts, Stuart Rosenkrantz  Routine communication – sending and receiving info  Traditional management – planning, decision making, controlling  Networking – interacting with people outside the organization  Human resource management – motivating, reinforcing, staffing, developing employees o Managerial agendas by John Kotter  Agenda setting – what to accomplish in the organization  Networking (group of internal and external)  Agenda implementation – using networks to implement agendas)  Managerial Minds o Experienced managers use intuition in several ways  To sense that a problem exists  To perform well learned mental tasks rapidly  To synthesize isolated pieces of information and data  To double check more formal or mechanical analyses  Some Contemporary Management Concerns o Diversity; local & global – labour forces and customers are becoming increasingly culturally diverse o Employee – organizational relationships – downsizing, restructuring, re-engineering, and outsourcing have a profound effect on North American organizations o Focus on quality, speed and flexibility o Talent management – an organizations process for attracting, developing, retaining, and utilizing people with the required skills to meet current and future business needs o Focus on corporate social responsibility  Research methods o Evidence based management involves translating principles based on the best scientific evidence into organizational practises o Hypothesis – a formal statement of the expected relationship between 2 variables o Variables – measures that can take on 2+ values o Types of variables  Independent – the variable that is the predictor or the cause of the relationship between it and the dependant variable  Dependent – the variable that is expected to vary as a result of change to the independent variable  Moderating – variable that affects the nature of the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable such that the relationship depends on the level of the moderating variable  Mediating – variable that intervenes or explains the relationship between and independent and dependent variable  Measurement of variables  Reliability – consistent responses  Validity – extent to which a measure truly reflects what it is suppose to measure  Convergent validity – when there is a strong relationship between different measures of the same variable  Discriminant validity – when there is a weak relationship between different measures of different variable  Observational techniques o Observational research – examines the natural activities of people in an organizational setting by listening to what they say and watching what they do  Participant observation  Direct observation o Correlational research – research that attempts to measure variable precisely and examine relationships among these variables without introducing change into the research setting  Surveys  Interviews  Existing data o Experimental research – research that changes or manipulates a variable under controlled conditions and examines the consequences of this manipulation for some other variable  Control groups  Validity o Internal – extent to which researcher has confidence that changes in a dependent variable are due to the independent variable o External – extent to which the results of a study generalize to other samples and settings o Random sampling – the research participants are randomly chosen from the population of interest  Hawthorne Effect o A favourable response by subjects in an organizational experiment that is the result of a factor other than the independent variable that is formally being manipulated Chapter 2 – Personality & Learning  What is personality? o The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment  Five factor Model of Personality o Extroversion o Emotional stability/ neuroticism o Agreeableness o Conscientiousness o Openness to experience  Other Personality Traits o Locus of control – set of beliefs whether ones behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces o Self monitoring – extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships o Self esteem – the degree to which a person has a positive self evaluation  Recent Development in Personality & Organizational Behaviour o Positive affectivity – propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a positive light o Negative affectivity – propensity to view the world, including oneself and others, in a negative way o Proactive behaviour – taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones o General self efficacy – a general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his or her ability to perform o Core self evaluations – a broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and self worth  What is learning? o A relatively permanent change in behaviour potential that occurs due to practise or experience  Operant Learning Theory o B.F Skinner o Learning by which the subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequences o Increasing the probability of behaviour  Reinforcement – stimuli strengthens behaviour  Positive reinforcement – application or addition of stimulus that increases or maintains the probability of behaviour  Negative reinforcement – removal of stimulus in turn increases the probability of behaviour  Organizational Errors Involving Reinforcement o Confusing rewards with reinforcers o Neglecting diversity in preferences for reinforcers o Neglecting important sources of reinforcement  Performance feedback  Social recognition  Reducing the Probability of Behaviour o Extinction – the gradual dissipation of behaviour following the termination of reinforcement o Punishment – the application of an aversive stimulus following some behaviour designed to decrease the probability of that behaviour  Using Punishment Effectively o Make sure punishment is truly aversive o Punish immediately o Do not reward unwanted behaviour before or after punishment o Do not inadvertently punish desirable behaviour  Social Cognitive Theory o Albert Bandura o Involves three components  Observational learning – observing and imitating the behaviour of others  Self efficacy – beliefs people have about their ability to successfully perform a specific task  Self regulation – the use of learning principles to regulate one’s own behaviour o Organizational learning practises  Organizational behaviour modification – learning principles to influence organizational behaviour  Employee recognition programs  Training programs  Behaviour modelling training  Define behaviours to be learned  Provide a model displaying effective use of those behaviours  Provide opportunities to practise those behaviours  Provide feedback and social reinforcement  Maximize the transfer of those behaviours to the job  Career development Chapter 3 – Perception, Attribution, and Diversity  What is perception o The process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment  Components of Perception o The perceiver o The situation o The target  Perceptual defence – the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions  Social Identity Theory o A theory that states that people form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories  Basic Biases in Person Perception o Primacy effect – tendency for a perceiver to rely on cues or first impressions o Recency effect – tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions o Reliance on Central Traits – personal characteristics of a target person that is of one particular interest to the perceiver o Implicit Personality Theories – personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together o Projection – the tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others o Stereotyping – tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore variations among them  Attribution: Perceiving Causes and Motives o Attribution – the process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain peoples behaviours o Dispositional attributions – explanations for behaviour based on an actor’s personality or intellect o Situational attributions – explanations for behaviour based on an actor’s external situation or environment o Consistency cues – attribution cues that reflect how consistently a person engages in a behaviour over time o Consensus cues – attribution cues that reflect how a person’s behaviour compares with that of others o Distinctiveness cues – attribution cues that reflect the extent to which a person engages in some behaviour across a variety of situations  Bias in Attribution o Fundamental attribution error – the tendency to overemphasize dispositional explanations for behaviour at the expense of situational explanations o Actor – observer effect – the propensity for actors and observers to view the cause of the actor’s behaviour differently o Self serving bias – the tendency to take credit for successful outcomes and to deny responsibility for failures  What is Workforce Diversity? o Differences among recruits and employees in characteristics such as gender, race, age, religion, cultural background, physical ability, or sexual orientation  What is Stereotype Threat? o Members of a social group feel they might be judged or treated according to a stereotype and that their behaviour or performance will confront the stereotype  What is trust? o A psychological state in which one has a willingness to be vulnerable and to take risks with respect to the actions of another party  Organizational Support Theory o A theory that suggests that employees who have strong perceptions of organizational support feel an obligation to care about the organizations welfare and to help the organization achieve its objectives  Perceptions in Employee Interview o Previously viewed job applicants affect an interviewers perception of a current applicant, leading to an exaggeration of differences between applicants  Signalling Theory o Job applicants interpret their recruitment experiences as cues or signals about what it is like to work in an organization  Rater Errors o Leniency – perceive job performance of ratees as especially good o Harshness – perceive job performance of ratees as ineffective o Central tendency – assign most ratees as middle range o Halo effect – rating individual on one trait or characteristic tends to colour ratings or other traits or characteristics o Similar to me effect – more favourable rating to those like the rater Chapter 4 – Values, Attitudes, & Work Behaviours  What are Values? o A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others  Cultural Differences in Values o Work centrality o Power distance o Uncertainty avoidance o Individualism/collectivism  What are Attitudes? o A fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category of people  What is Job Satisfaction? o A collection of attitudes that workers have about their job  What determines Job Satisfaction? o Discrepancy theory o Fairness – job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained  Distributive fairness – occurs when people receive the outcomes they think they deserve from their job  Equity theory – comparison of inputs and outputs on others jobs  Procedural fairness – processes are fair  Interactional fairness – people feel they have received informative communication about an outcome  Key Contributors to Job Satisfaction o Mentally challenging work o Adequate compensation o Career opportunities o Co workers  Consequences of Job Satisfaction o Absence of work o High turnover o Performance o Organizational citizenship behaviour – voluntary behaviour that contributes to organizational effectiveness o Customer satisfaction & profit  What is Organizational Commitment? o An attitude the reflects the strength of the linkage between an employee and an organization o Affective – commitment based on identification and involvement with an organization o Continuance – commitment based on the costs that would be incurred in leaving an organization o Normative – commitment based on feeling of obligation Chapter 5 – Theories of Work Motivation  Motivation o The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal  Effort – the strength of the persons work related behaviour  Persistence – the continuality that workers apply effort towards tasks  Direction – the quality of work, workers are working towards the goals of the organization  Goals – employees set goals that benefit both themselves and the organization o Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic  Intrinsic - motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task, it is usually self applied  Extrinsic – motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task, it is usually applied by others  Self Determination Theory o A theory of motivation that considers whether people’s motivation is autonomous or controlled  Autonomous – when people are self motivated by intrinsic factors  Controlled – when people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward  Motivation & Performance o Performance – the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization o Factors Contributing to Individual Job Performance  Personality  General cognitive ability – a person’s basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources  Task understanding  Emotional intelligence – the ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions  Chance o Four Branch Model of Emotional Intelligence  Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others  Using emotions to facilitate thinking  Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions  Managing emotions to obtain specific goals  Need Theories – motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance. “What motivates workers” o Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Self actualization  Esteem  Belongingness  Physiological  A five level hierarchal need theory of motivation that specifies that the lowest level unsatisfying need has the greatest motivating potential – Abraham Maslow o Alderfer’s ERG Theory  Growth  Relatedness  Existence  Three level hierarchal need theory of motivation that allows for movement up and down the hierarchy; the more lower level needs are gratified, the more higher level need satisfaction is desired – Clayton Alderfer o McClelland’s Theory of Needs  A non hierarchal need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivation  Need for achievement – strong desire to perform challenging tasks well  Need for affiliation – strong desire to establish and maintain friendly, compatible, interpersonal relationships  Need for power – strong desire to influence others, making a significant impact or impression  People that exhibit high needs in certain categories tend to be better geared towards certain jobs.  Achievement – sales jobs, entrepreneurial positions  Affiliation – social work, customer relations  Power – journalism, management o Managerial Implications of Need Theories  Appreciate diversity  Appreciate intrinsic motivation  Process Theories – motivation theories that specify the details of how motivation occurs o Expectancy Theory  Process theory that states that motivation is determined by the outcomes that people expect to occur as a result of their actions on the job – Victor Vroom  Outcome – consequences that follow work behaviour  Instrumentality – probability that a particular first level outcome will be followed by a particular second level outcome  Valence – expected value of work outcomes and extent to which they are attractive or unattractive  Expectancy – probability that a particular first level outcome can be achieved  Force – effort directed toward a first level outcome o Managerial implications  Boost expectancies  Clarify reward contingencies  Appreciate diverse needs o Equity Theory  Process theory that states that motivation stems from a comparison of the inputs one invests in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or group o Managerial Implications  Low productivity  Low quality  High turnover  Theft o Goal Setting Theory  Process theory that states that goals are motivational when they are specific, challenging, and when organizational members are committed to them and feedback about progress toward goal attainment is provided  Motivational goals  Goal specificity  Goal challenge  Goal commitment  Goal feedback  Enhancing Goal Commitment  Participation  Rewards  Supportiveness  Goal Orientation and Types of Goals  Goal orientation – an individual goal preference in achievement situations  Learning goal ‘preference to learn to new things’  Performance prove ‘obtain favourable judgements’  Performance avoid ‘avoid negative judgements’  Distal goal – long term goals  Proximinal goal – short term goals Chapter 6 – Motivation in Practise  Money as a motivator – competitive advantage to companies that use money as a motivator, more motivating than you think  Linking pay to performance on production – companies that link pay to performance almost always see an increase in productivity o Piece rate – pay system in which individual workers are paid a certain sum of money for each unit of production completed o Wage incentive plans – various systems that link pay to performance on production jobs  Potential Problems with Wage Incentives o Lowered quality – people make more at the expense of quality o Differential opportunity – supply of raw materials varies, some workers may be at a disadvantage o Reduced cooperation – decreased cooperation among coworkers o Incompatible job design – sometimes impossible to reward individuals contribution to production o Restriction of productivity – artificial limitation of work output can occur under wage incentive plans  Linking Pay to Performance on White Collar Jobs o Merit pay plans – systems that attempt to link pay to performance on white collar jobs (clerical and professional)  Potential Problems w Merit Pay Plans o Low discrimination – unable to discriminate between good and bad employees o Small increases – to small increases to be effective  Some companies have abandoned merit pay and moved towards lump sum bonus where pay is awarded in a single payment and not built into base pay o Pay secrecy – extreme secrecy that surrounds salaries in most organizations  Linking Pay to Motivate Teamwork o Profit sharing – the return of some company profits to employees in the form of a cash bonus or a retirement supplement o Employee stock ownership plans – incentive plans that allow employees to own a set amount of a company’s shares and provide employees with a stake in the company’s future earnings and success o Gainsharing – group pay incentive based on productivity or performance improvements over which the workforce has some control o Skill based pay – a system in which people are paid according to the number of job skills they have acquired  Job Design as a Motivator o Goal is to identify the characteristics that make some tasks more motivating than others and capture these characteristics in the design of jobs o Job Scope & Motivation  Job scope – the breadth and depth of a job  Breadth - # of different activities performed on the job  Depth – the degree of discretion or control a worker has over how work tactics are performed  Job rotation – rotating employees through different tasks and jobs in an organization  Job Characteristics Model o Five characteristics that will affect motivation  Skill variety  Autonomy  Task significance  Task identity  Feedback  Job Enrichment o The design of jobs to enhance intrinsic motivation, quality of working life, and job involvement. A cognitive state of psychological identification with one’s job and the importance of work to one’s total self image.  Combining tasks  Establishing external client relationships  Establishing internal client relationships  Reducing supervision or reliance on others  Forming work teams  Making feedback more direct o Potential problems with job enrichment  Poor diagnosis  Lack of desire or skill  Demand for rewards  Union resistance  Supervisory resistance  Work Design o Attributes of the task, job, and social an organizational environment  Management By Objectives o An elaborate, systematic, ongoing program designed to facilitate goal establishment, goal accomplishment, and employee development  Alternating Work Schedule as Motivation o Flex time – alternative work schedule in which arrival and departure times are flexible o Compressed work week – an alternative work schedule in which employees work fewer than the normal five days a week, but still put in forty hours per week  Job Sharing o Alternative work schedule in which two part time employees divide the work in a full time job  Work sharing o Reducing the number of hours employees work to avoid layoffs when there is a reduction in normal business activity  Telecommuting o System by which employees are able to work at home, but stay in touch with their offices through the use of communicative technology such as computer network, voice mail and electronic messages Chapter 7 – Groups & Teamwork  What is a group? o Two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal  Formal work groups – groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals  Informal groups – groups that emerge naturally in response to common interest shared by organizational members  Group Development o Forming – testing the waters o Storming – confrontation, criticism and sorting out roles o Norming – resolve issues, develop social consensus o Performing – develop energies to accomplishment o Adjourning – once goal is complete, groups break up  Punctuated Equilibrium Model o A model of group development that describes how groups with deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions  Group Structure & its Consequences o Size and satisfaction – larger groups are less satisfied as opportunity for more conflict, and not easy to identify individual successes o Size and performance – depends on task whether or not groups perform better larger  Additive tasks – tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual group members, ex: building a house, more people gets the job done faster  Disjunctive tasks – tasks in which group performance is dependent on performance of the best group member, ex: research team looking for a single error in a paper, more people increases the chance of finding the error o Process losses – group performance difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groups o Conjunctive – tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member, ex: teaching team only as good as its weakest link  Diversity of Group Membership o More diverse groups come up with more creative solutions however it takes them longer to get past conflict  Group Norms o Collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of each other  Why do norms develop? To provide regularity and predictability to behaviour  How do norms develop? People form attitudes of a related behaviour o Typical Norms  Dress norms – the kind of clothing people wear to work  Reward allocation norms – equity, equality, reciprocity, social responsibility  Performance norms – expectations about performance  Roles o Positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviours attached to them  Role ambiguity – lack of clarity of job goals or methods  Role conflict – incompatible role expectations  Intrasender role conflict – single role sender provide incompatible role occupant with incompatible expectations  Intersender role conflict – two or more role senders provide a role occupant with incompatible expectations  Person-role conflict – role demands call for behaviour that is incompatible with the personality or skills of a role occupant  Status o The rank, social position, or prestige accorded to group members  Formal status – given by an organization such as a “title”  Informal status – not well advertised “jokester in class” o Consequences of status differences  Those with higher status only associate with those of the same status, and are valued more o Reducing Status Barriers  Doing away with formal titles, also email has softened the barrier as lower status people need not directly confront those with higher status  Group Cohesiveness o Degree to which a group is especially attractive to its members o Factors Influencing Cohesiveness  Threat & competition – when groups are threatened they tend to show a more united front  Success – successfully accomplishing things brings groups together o Consequences of Cohesiveness  More participation – the participation may be more friendly and less goal oriented  More Conformity – as people become friends, they stick together o Social Loafing – tendency to withhold physical or intellectual effort when performing a group task o Free rider effect – not putting forth effort because the rest of the group is o Sucker effect – seeing that everyone else is not working, so reduce the level your working to make things equal  To avoid – make individual performance more visible, make sure work is interesting, increase performance feedback and reward group performance  Team o A group becomes a team when there exists a strong shared commitment  Collective efficacy – shared beliefs that a team can successfully perform a given task o Self managed work teams  Work groups that have the opportunity to do challenging work under reduced supervision  Composition of self managed teams  Stability, size, expertise, diversity o Cross functional teams  Work groups that bring people with different functional specialties together to better invent, design, or deliver a product or service o Virtual teams  Work groups that use technology to communicate and collaborate across time, space, and organizational boundaries  Advantages – around the clock work, reduced travel time & cost, larger talent pool  Disadvantages – trust, miscommunication, isolation, high cost, management issues Chapter 8 – Social Influence, Socialization & Culture  Social Influence in Organizations o Information Dependence – reliance on others for information on how to think, feel and react, it gives others the opportunity to influence our thoughts, feelings and actions via the signals they send. Individuals are often motivated to compare their own thoughts, feelings, and actions with those of others as a means of acquiring information about their adequacy. o Effect dependence – reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment, the group frequently had vested interest in how individual members think and act because such matters can affect the goal attainment of the group, the member frequently desires the approval of the group. In organizations plenty of effects are available to keep members under the influence  Social Influence in Action o Obvious consequence of information and effect dependence is the tendency for group members to conform to the social norms established by the group o Motives for social conformity  Compliance – conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment  Identification – conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself  Internalization – conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm o The Subtle Power of Compliance  Simple compliance can lead to internalization, if an employee complies simply to avoid punishment or get rewards this may be a good thing as over time the social norm will become embedded into the employee and they will begin to embrace the norm  Organizational Socialization o The process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge and behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization. It is a learning process in which new members must acquire knowledge, change their attitudes, and perform new behaviours. It is also the primary means by which the organization communicates its culture and values to new members o Important objective is for new comers to achieve a good fit  Person-job fit: the match between an employee’s knowledge, skills and abilities and the requirements of a job  Person-organization fit: the match between an employee’s personal values and the values of an organization  Organizational identification: the extent to which an individual defines him or herself in terms or the organization and what it is perceived to represent o Socialization has a direct effect of proximal outcomes which leads to positive distal outcomes  Stages of Socialization o Anticipatory socialization – a formal process of skill and attitude acquisition (attending college or university), an informal process would be acquiring skills through summer jobs and coop terms. Some organizations socialize even before hiring at recruitment events, etc. o Encounter – the new recruit encounters the day to day activity of this life, this may include orientation programs, rotation through various departments, getting to know ones boss and coworkers. If successful, the recruit will have complied with critical organizational norms and should begin to identify with experienced organizational members o Role management – fine tuning and actively managing their role within the organization  Unrealistic Expectations and the Psychological Contract o Unrealistic expectations – people entering organizations hold many expectations that are inaccurate and often unrealistically high, therefore there becomes a need for socialization o The unreal expectations may come from the media, or overzealous recruiters wanting to paint a perfect picture to recruit new members o Psychological contract – beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises between them and their organization o Psychological contract breach – employee perceptions that his or her organization has failed to fulfill one or more of its promises or obligations of the psychological contract  Less likely in organizations where socialization is intense  Methods of Organizational Socialization o Realistic job previews – the provision of a balanced, realistic picture of the positive and negative aspects of a job to applicants. Realistic job previews are effective in reducing inflated expectations and turnover and improving job performance. o Employee Orientation – programs designed to introduce new employees to their job, the people they will be working with and the organization. It is an important method of socialization because it can have immediate effects on learning and a lasting effect on job attitudes.  Socialization Tactics o The manner in which organizations structure the early work experiences of newcomers and individuals who are in transition from one role to another o Collective – socializing as a group (army boot camps, fraternity pledges, flight attendants) o Individual – tailor made experiences (on the job training, apprenticeship) o Formal – involve segregating newcomers and providing them with formal learning experiences o Informal – do not distinguish between a newcomer from more experienced members o Sequential – clear sequence of steps or stages during process o Random – ambiguous or changing sequence o Fixed – time table for newcomer o Variable – no time frame to indicate when socialization ends o Serial – socialized by experienced members o Disjunctive – role models and experienced members do not groom newcomers o Investiture – affirm incoming identity and attributes of new hires o Divesture – hazing “shaving of heads in army”  Organizations that are more successful at socializing newcomers help them to establish a broad network of relationships with coworkers  Mentoring o An experienced or more senior person in the organization who gives a junior person special attention, such as giving advice and creating opportunities to assist him or her during the early stages of his or her career o Career functions of mentoring  Sponsorship (nominating for promotions)  Exposure & visibility (provide opportunities to work with key people)  Coaching & Feedback (suggesting work strategies)  Developmental Assignments (provide work assignments to develop skill) o Psychosocial Functions of mentoring  Role modelling  Provide acceptance and confirmation  Counselling  Proactive Socialization o The process through which newcomers play an active role in their own socialization through the use of a number of proactive socialization behaviours  General socializing  Boss relationship building  Networking  Feedback seeking  Information seeking  Observation  Behavioural self management  Relationship building  Job change negotiation 
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