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Wilfrid Laurier University

1 Pre-Midterm Chapter 1: An Introduction W HAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Organization are social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group efforts  social inventions – coordinated presence of people, people who present opportunities and challenges,  field of organizational behaviour is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively.  Goal Accomplishment all organization have survival of goal, people have to be motivated to join and remain in organization, carry out basic work reliability (productivity, quality and service), be willing to continuous learn and upgrade knowledge and skills, be flexible and innovative  Group Efforts depend on interaction and coordination among people to accomplish goals + informal setting occurs in all organizations *Organizational Behaviour refers to attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in an organization, it is about:  understanding people and managing them to work effectively  how organization can survive and adjust to change  how to get people to practice effective teamwork Look at different factors including; culture, employees learning support, providing incentives, communication between hierarchies *Therefore, OB focuses on attitudes and behaviour in society, how organization can be structured more effectively, how events in the external environment affect organization Why Study OB?  About people and nature - Interesting examples of success and failure,  importance of OB – relative to life and has profound affect on individuals,  makes a difference within work space – Pfeffer – can’t be competitive through rech, markets, financial resources and economies of scares, main factor is workforce/human capital and who can effectively manage them. o Management has effect on employee attitude and effectiveness of company *Goals of OB:  Predict OB & events: interest in predicting if one can make ethical decisions, create innovative product or engage in sexual harassment – provides scientific foundation that helps improve predictions of such events  Explain OB & events in an organization: determining why people are more/less motivated, satisfied or prone to resign- in search of an explanation for turnover issues within an organization  Manage OB: management is the art of getting things accomplished, acquire allocate and utilize resources to accomplish goals EARLYP RESCRIPTIONCONCERNING M ANAGEMENT Classical viewpoint: an early prescription on management that advocated high specialization of labour, intensive coordination and centralized decision making by Fayol, Mooney and Urwick  Tended to advocate a very high degree of specialization labour and a very high degree in coordination – to maintain control it recommend having few workers Scientific Management Fredericak taylor, father of scientific management, advocated the use of careful research to determine optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work task. – and supported written instructions.  “functional formanship” supervisors specialize in particular functions Weber made term of bureaucracy ideal type/theoretical model that would standardize behaviour in OB, included the following – strict chain of command, criteria for selection and promotion, set of detailed rules, regulations, and procedures, use of strict specialization, centralization of power The Human Relations Movement and a Critique of Bureaucracy Hawthorne studies research conducted at hawthorne plant of western electric near Chicago in 1920 and 1930 that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustments; like fatigue, rest pauses and lighting on productivity. This study suggested the dysfunctional aspects to how work was organized. human relations movement: critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that was more participative and oriented towards employee needs. The critique suggested following issues  Strict specialization is incompatible with human needs for growth and achievement  Strong centralization and reliance on formal authority often fail to take advantage of creative ideas  Strict, impersonal rules lead members to adopt minimum acceptable level of performance  Strong specialization causes employees to lose sight of overall goals of organization 2 Contemporary Management – The contingency Approach recognizes that there is no one best way to manage, and that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation  Concepts must reflect situational conditions  Effectiveness of a particular style depends on situation used on “leaders should always seek the idea of employees before making a decision”  Paticipative style is clearly better in some but in others directive style is better M ANAGEMENT *What do Managers do: The field of OB is concerned with what managers actually do , Management is the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others. Mintzberg models: Managerial roles  Interpersonal roles  figurehead, leader, liaison “establish and maintain relationship”  Information Roles  monitor, disseminator, spokesperson “receive and transmit information”  Decisional Roles  Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator “Deals with decision marking” Managerial Activities Managers engage in 4 activities:  Routine communications - formal sending & receiving of info  Traditional management – plan, decision making, and controlling  Networking – interacting with people outside organization and informal socializing  Human resource management – motivation and reinforcing disciplining and punishing Management Agenda: agenda setting  networking  agenda implementation Managerial Minds – Simon and Isenberg explore how managers thing. Isenberg believed experience managers use the following ways:  Sense that a problem exist  Perform well-learned mental task rapidly  Double-check more formal and mechanical analyses *Hofstede, International managers – managers are cultural heros and are even a distinct worships engineers, various leadership stles, motivation techniques, and communication method depends where you are in the world *Contingency Approach to OB  • Concepts must reflect situational conditions, • Effectiveness of a particular style depends on the situation in which it is used “leaders should always seek the ideas of employees before making a decision” • in some situations a participative style is clearly better but in other situations a more directive style would be more appropriate *Contemporary Management Concerns  Diversity – Local and Global : o Canadian workforce is increasingly diverse and requires flexibility in management – Multi cultural & Multi generational o Organization needs to redress past inequity in how certain segments of popn in employment – employment equity laws o Global business has increased  Need to understand different culture & how business is done  Different laws and practices  Employee-Organization Relations: consequences of workplace include o Decreased trust, Lower morale and loyalty, Decline in job satisfaction and organizational commitment, Low levels of employee engagement, Increase in work related illness and stress, Absenteeism  Quality, Speed, and Flexibility o Intense competition has driven organization to improve on quality, speed and flexibility o Requires high levels of employee involvement, commitment, teamwork o Requires a different management style  Empowerment, delegation of authority and control  Participative and adaptable  Talent Management refers to organizations processes for attracting, developing, retaining, and utilizing people with the required skills to meet current and future business needs o Two most important challenges are  Recruitment of HQ people across multiple territories  Improve appeal of company culture and work environment o OB can help companies improve their recruitment & retention and become employers choice o Provides means for organization to designed and managed in ways that optimize talent attraction development, retention and performance 3  Focus on CSR – refers to organization taking responsibilities for the impact of its decision and actions on stakeholders. Extends beyond interest of sharholders to interest and needs of employees and the community it operates in . Many CSR issues have to do with OB, has implication for recruitment & retention as well as employees attiude, motivation and firm performance  Employment recruitment and retention o Major challenge facing organizations is recruitment & retention of skilled employees o Canadian organizations face shortages of labour in certain areas i.e Management knowledge & skills, technical skills, skilled trades, etc  Demographics  New Employee Relationships : Outsourcing practice of hiring other firms to do work previously performed by the organization itself o Help firm focus on core activities o Lowers labour cost o Result in loss of jobs i.e traditional manufacturing jobs – auto services  Technology  Outsourcing Management Practices : Flexible work schedule, stock-options/profit-sharing, training & development program, family assistance, career development programs, wellness & stress reduction program, employee recognition and rewards program Challenges in Canadian Workplace  Increase efficiency & productivity  Balancing work/life situation  Continuously change and increase competition  Empowered employees  Globalization  Increasing teamwork  Increasing customer demands  Technology advance  Culture diversity in workplace  Knowledge-based work  Changing expectation  Flexible work arrangement Part Two: Individual Behaviours – Personality and Learning W HAT IS PERSONALITY Personality: relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influence the way an individual interacts with his/her environment and how he/she feels thinks and behave. – summarize how a person deals with the world – they are reflected in the distinctive way that they react to people, situation and problems – personality consist of a number of dimensions and traits that are determined in a complex way by genetic predisposition and by one’s long term learning history. Big 5 set fundamental traits that are especially relevant to OB Personality Deteminants nature v. nurture *Personality and Organizational behaviour  after WW2 personality test were a segment in selecting military personnel – wide spread and then popular in business organizations in the 50’s and 60’s  Dispositional approach – focuses on individuals disposition and personality – individuals possess stable traits o many studies shown that situational factors such as characteristic of work tasks predict job satisfaction most widely accepted approach to OB  Mixed/inconsistent beliefs around this which caused a dramatic decrease in using personality test for selections  Researchers shift attention to how to predict in businesses & explain OB – known as the situational approach where characteristics of the organizational setting, such as rewards/punishment, influence people’s feelings, attitudes and behaviour. Many studies have shown that situational factors such as the characteristics of work tasks predict job satsifaction rd  Person-situation debate – both sides argued the importance/ which one is right, led to 3 approach  interactionist approach – OB is a function of both disposition and situation – to predict and understand OB we need to know something about an individual’s personality and work setting. This is the most widely accepted approach to OB o Weak Situation – not clear how person should behave – loose roles, few rules, and weak reward/punishment – personality has stronger impact in weak situations e.g new start up o Strong situation – defined roles, rules, and contingency personality has less impact e.g military routine  Most important implication: some characteristic are useful in certain situation – no one best ersonality/manager – looking for the right fit – putting the right person in the right job, group or ogrniazation 4 *The 5 factor model  Extraversion – able to be outgoing sociable, talkative v. withdrawn, shy – high extraverts enjoy social situations while introverts avoid them, important for interpersonal interaction – like sales/management – these characteristics are important for success, + to social interaction, also + to training proficiency  Emotional Stability – appropriate emotional control stable, confident v. depressed/anxious high emotional stability (low neuroticism) are confident and have high esteem. Lower emotional stability (high neroticism) tend to be self doubted/depressed/anxious - higher more effective in interacting with coworker and customers – minimum threshold is necessary to predict performance of all jobs, after that, it is open to debate  Agreeable – friendly and approachable tolerant, cooperative v. cold, rude – contribute to job performance which requires interaction – ability to get along with others and cooperate, + relation to performance in service jobs  Concsientiousness –responsible and achievement-oriented dependable, responsible v. careless, impulsive, likely to perform well on most jobs given their tendency to work hard – measureof reliability, + for every job may be better than ability in predicting job performance  Openness to experience – curious, original vs. dull, unimaginative, do well in jobs that involve learning and creativity Research – evidence big 5 is related to job performance, top half of 2.1 have better job performance  Related to work behaviour: consciousness attention at work, extraversion absents  Related to work motivation and job satisfaction Neiroticism & conscientiousness – predictor of motivations  Related to job search and career success – high c, high extroverts and low n’s, = higher pay  Strongest predictor was neuroticism followed by conscientiousness, extraversion and agreeableness – job satisfaction *Locus of Control a set of beliefs about whether one behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces – extent to which people believe that their behaviour has a real effect on what happens to them  High internallocus of control – believe that the opportunity to control their own behaviour resides n themselves “I can do it”- tend to be more satisfied with jobs, money earning and achieve higher organizational position o Stronger link in-between effort they put in a job and their performance take advantage of information that will perform more effectively  High external believe external forces determine their behaviour unpredictable view point believe In luck/destiny Self-monitoring: the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social setting and relationships, people who wear their heart on their sleeves are low self-monitors – not concerned about scoping out/fitting in  High monitors gravitate towards jobs that require by nature a degree of role-playing and exercise of self presentation like sales law public relations – ability to adapt to one’s clients and contacts are crucial – deal well with flexibility and adaptiveness in dealing with diverse constituencies, significantly related to outcome, likely to experience more role stress and show less commitment to organization Self esteem degree to which a person has a positive self evaluation –  low self esteem have unfavourable images, uncertain about the correctess of opinion, attitude and behaviours.react back to negative feedback – lowers their performance. Managers need to be cautious about using negative reinforcement/punishment – direct criticism at performance not person  Highly motivated individuals protect themselves from threats to self-esteem  Plasticity of their thoughts, attitudes and behaviour known as behaviour plasciticity: people with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influence than those with high self esteem  Behavioural plasticity theory – people with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high self esteem o People with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high self-esteem. o Events and people in organizations have more impact on the beliefs and actions of employees with low self- esteem. 5 *Recent developments in personality and OB Positive affectivity – propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a positive light. Higher job satisfication negative affectivity – propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people in a negative light, lower job satisfication Proactive behaviour: taking intiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones, related to job performance, tolerance for stress, leadership effectiveness, participation in organizational intiative, teamwork Proactive personality : a stable personal disposition that reflects tendency to take personal intiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in one’s environment - Proactive individuals search for and identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until they bring about meaningful change. General self efficacy – a general trait that refers to an individual belief in his/her ability to perform successfully ina variety of challenging situation General self-efficacy (GSE) is a motivational trait rather than an affective trait. Research: •Individuals with higher GSE are better able to adapt to novel, uncertain, and adverse situations. •Employees with higher GSE have higher job satisfaction and job performance. W HAT IS LEARNING? Learning: a relatively permanent change in behaviour potential that occurs due to practice or experience  the practice or experience that prompts learning stems from an environment that gives feedback concerning the consequence of behaviour  Learning in organization – taxonomies indicate what employees learn, how they learn and different type of learning  “what” aspect of learning content – four categories: o Practical Skills job specific skills, knowledge and technical competence o Intrapersonal skills skills as problem solving, critical thinking and learning about alt. work processes o Interpersonal skills: interactive skills related to communication, teamwork and conflict resolution o Cultural awareness: involves learning the social norms of organizations and understanding company goals, operations, expectation and priorities  Operant learning theory– learning by which subjets learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequences, connection b/w behaviour and consequence. Controlled by consequences that follow  E.g consequences usually depend on the behaviour and this connection is what is learned  Increase probability of desired behaviours and to reduce or eliminate the probability of undesirable behaviours INCREASING PROBABILITY OF BEAHAVIOUR Reinforcement: process by which stimuli strengthen behaviour, reinforce is a stimulus that follows some behaviour and increase/maintains the probability of behaviour Reinforcement serves to strengthen behaviour such as sales technique to fulfill organizations goals  Positive Reinforcement increses or maintains the probability of some behaviour by the application or addition of a stimulus to the situation in question – pleasant things like food, praise, money, business success – but intrinsic character of a stimuli does not determine whether they are positive reinforcers and pleasants stimuli are not positive reinforcers when considered in abstract – depends on what it caused to happen  Negative reinforcement removal of a stimulus that in turn increase/maintains the probability of some behaviour, occurs when a response prevents some event/stimulus from occurring. Usually aversive or unpleasant stimuli – managers who nag workers are trying to get workers to work harder, only way employees can stop this is to work hard and be diligent. Pepsico smoking surcharges/ taking away coffee Organizational Errors Involving Reinforcement  Confusing rewards with reinforcers organization & individual managers reward workers with things such as pay, promotion, fringe benefit, paid vacation, overtime work and challenging task. Such rewards fail to act as reinforces, because organization do not make them contingent ona specific behaviour that are of interest to organization. E.g overtime based on seniority  Neglecting Diversity in Preference for Reinforcers fail to appreciate individual differences in preferences, questionable to reinforce a workholic’s extra effort  Neglecting Important Sources of Reinforcement Performance feedback + social recognition Exhibit 2.3 Reducing Probability of behaviour: Sometimes learned behaviours are detrimental to the operation of an organization and they need to be reduced or eliminated. •Two strategies that can reduce the probability of learned behaviour: Extinction: The gradual dissipation of behaviour following the termination of reinforcement. •If the behaviour is not reinforced, it will gradually dissipate or be extinguished. •Extinction works best when coupled with the reinforcement of some desired substitute behaviour. 6 Punishment: •The application of an aversive stimulus following unwanted behaviour to decrease the probability of that behaviour. •A nasty stimulus is applied after some undesirable behaviour in order to decrease the probability of that behaviour. Using punishment effectively --. Clear signal to which activities are inappropriate, doesn`t show replacement Organizational Errors Involving Reinforcement •Rewards fail to serve as reinforcers when they are not made contingent on some specific desired behaviour. •Organizations often fail to appreciate individual differences in preferences for reinforcers. •Two important sources of reinforcement that managers often ignore are performance feedback and social recognition. Performance feedback is most effective when it is: •Conveyed in a positive manner •Delivered immediately after observing performance •Specific to the behaviour that is being targeted for feedback •focus on the behaviour not the person Social Cognitive Theory contains three parts  Observant learning process of observing and imitating the behaviour of others o Learning occurs through observing or imagining the behaviour of others, seeing what consequence they experience and thinking about what might happen if we act the same way o Managers should pay more attendtion to process  Self Efficacy: beliefs people have about their ablity to successfully perform tasks-task specific cognitive appraisal o one`s ability to perform a specific task o person’s beliefs about his or her capabilities to perform a task As a manager, how might you know that an employee has a low sense of self-efficacy? How might you manage such an employee? o Can be changed or modified in response to different source of information o Can influence activities people choose to perform, the amount of effort and persistence they devote to a task, affective and stress reaction and job performance  Self-Regulation use of learning principles to regulate one’s own behaviour o Observe one owns behaviour, compare behaviour and reward oneself if mehaviour meets standard --. Peoples pursuit of self-set goals that guide their behaviour o Techniques: collect data, observe models, set goals, rehearse, reinforce oneself Organizational Learning Practices -Organizational behaviour modification: involves systematic use of learning principles to influence OB - Employee recognition programs: formal organizational program that publicly recogbnize and reward employees for specific behaviours -Training programs: planned ogrnizational activities that are designed to facilitate knowledge and skill quisition to change behaviour and improve on performance, Beaviour modelling training: one of the most widely used and effective method of training, involves 5 steps based on observational learning component of social cognitive theory - Career development: an ongoing process in which individuals progress through a series of stages that consist of unique set of issues, themes and tasks Chapter 3: perception attribution and diversity*** W HAT IS PERCEPTION Perception : the process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment  helps sort out and organize the complex and varied input received by our senses of sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing, perceptions influence behaviour, sense of fairness, understanding of situation and motivation, job satisfaction and productivity. It is base action based on interpretation of reality rather than reality itself Why Study Perception & Personality in Business School To better understand what information people take in, how they interpret it, and how they make attributions and decisions about events. We don’t see reality we interpret what we see and call it reality. Personality and attribution processes guide our decision making and behaviour, regardless of the truth of the attribution Directly and indirectly influences short and long-term performance  Selective Perception Selectively interpreting what you see on the basis of your interest, background, experience, and attitudes.  We screen out information that we are uncomfortable with or that is inconsistent with our beliefs.  Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs. Ethnic, racial background, gender and age are common criteria  Halo Effect Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic. 7  Contrast Effects Evaluations of a person that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.  Projection Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people Components of Perception 3.1 3 components to perception: Perceiver a target that is being perceived – experience, needs and emotion affects perception o Most important part is the experience – past experiences lead perceiver affect perception  Our needs unconsciously influence our perception by causing us to perceive what we wish to perceive  Emotions can affect our perceptions e.g misperceiving innocent comment of a friend o Perceptual defence: the tendency for perceptual systems to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions The Target susceptible to interpretation and addition to the target – whome are susceptible to interpretation and addition providing more info to target will improve perceptual accuracy. The Situation: every instance of perception occurs in some situational text – affect what one perceives o Most important affect is to add information about taget Social Identity Theory a theory that states that people form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories Our sense of self is composed of a personal identity and social identity Personal identity based on personal unique characteristics i.e interest, ability, traits Social Identity based on our perception that we belong to various social groups We do this because we categorize ourselves and others to make sense of and understand social environment E.g defining people in meeting by job titles Also form perception of others based on membership in social categories – social identities are relational and comparative SIT helps us understand how components of perception system operates in the formation of perception – perception of others is a function how you categorize yourself (i.e student) and others (i.e professors) A Model of the Perceptual Process Jerome Bruner developed model of perceptual process that can provide a useful framework – when perceiver encounters unfamiliar target – open to informational cues contained in target and situation surrounding it - will actively seek out cues to resolve ambiguity – information is needed on which to base perception of target and to resolve any ambiguity Gradually encounters familiar cues and enables her/him to make crude categorization of target – search becomes less open and more selective. As categorization becomes stronger, the perceiver actively ignores/distorts cues First perception is selective – perception is efficient which can aid/hinder our perception accuracy – not all available cues are used and those that are used are thus given emphasis Second – perceptual constancy – refers to the tendency for the target to be perceived in same way over time or across situations – tendency for target to be perceived in same way over time/across situations Third – creates perceptual consistency – tendency to select, ignore and distort cues in such a manner that fit together to form a homogeneous picture of the target Basic Biases in Person Perception Primacy effect – the tendency for perceiver to rely on early cues or first impression – lasting impact + form of selectivity illustrate operations of constancy – first impression are lasting Recency effect – the tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions – last impressions count most, most recent performance is all that is remembered Reliance on Central Traits: organize perception around this – personal characteristics of a target person that are particular interest to a perceiver – depends on perceivers interest and situation i.e physical experience, intellectual capacity especially with judgement on competence/qualification/job success Implicit personality theories : personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together e.g hard workers are also very honest 8 Projection tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others perception can be efficient/ lead to perceptual difficulties in different situations e.g dishonest people often distrust everyone else Stereotyping the tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore variation among them. There can be favourable/unfavourable views i.e by race age gender background social class and occupation. Three aspects Distinguish category of people Assumptions they have certain traits Everyone in category posses these traits ATTRIUBTUION:PERCEIVING CAUSES ANDM OTIVE: Attribution: process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behavior –to explain behavior Important goal in making attribution cause by dispositional/situational attributes - dispositional attributes suggest that some personality/intellectual characteristics unique to person is responsible for behavior that the behavior thus reflects the true-person - Situational attributions suggest that the external situation or environment in which target person exist was responsible for behavior and person might have little control over it Attribution Theory Attribution Theory Suggests that we observe behavior and then attribute causes to it Dispositional or situational From a management perspective key is whether behaviour is attributed to Internal or External causes We start by observing behavior, either our own or someone else’s. We then evaluate that behavior in terms of consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness. Consistency cues attribution cues that reflect how consistently a person engages in a behavior over time – degree to which the person behaves in the same way over time e.g one might assume professor who has genereous office hours cares about students consensus cues attribution cues that reflect how a person’s behavior compares with that of others – other people in same situation are behaving the same way acts that deviate from social expectation provide us with more information about actors motive than conforming behaviours do , low consesensus leads to dispositional attributes than high Distinctiveness cues the extent to which a person engage in some behavior across a variety of situations – same person behaves same way in different situations Biases in Attribution Fundamental Attribution Error : The tendency to overemphasize dispositional explanation for behavior at the expense of situational explanation - underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviour of others often discount the strong effects that social roles can have on behavior 2) many people whom observe are seen in rather constrained, constant situation that reduce our appreciation of how their behavior may vary in other situation – can lead to problems Actor – observer effect the propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the actor’s behavior different - sensitive to environmental events Self Serving biases: tendency to take credit for successful outcome and deny any responsibility for failures – can reflect intentional self promotions or excuse making PERSON PECEPTION AND WORKFORCE DIVERSITY Workforce diversity : differences among recruits and employees in characteristics such as gender, race, age, religion, cultural background or sexual orientation The changing workplace labour pool is changing so employers are trying to employ people that reflect customer base The Canadian population and labour force is becoming increasingly multicultural and multiethinic. •The number of visible minorities in Canada is expected to double by 2017. •In less than a decade, 48 percent of the working-age population will be between the ages of 45 and 64. Valuing Diversity – value it not tolerate, increasingly awareness that diversity and its proper management can yield strategic and competitive advantage advantages : potential for imporving problem solving and creativity when diver perspectives. Competitive Adv of diversity cost argument, resource acquisition argument, marketing, creativity, problem solving, system flexibility Stereotypes and Working Diversity Stereotype threat: members of a social group feel they might be judged or treated according to a stereotype and that their behavior/performance will confirm the stereotype – can undermine person’s performance 9 Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes are pervasive, persistent, negative and self=contradictory, personal experience is unnecessary for these biases – often contain contradictory elements Gender stereotypes – one of the most problematic , women are severly underrepresented in managerial and administrative jobs, very few top level positions. Female manager are more likely than males to have to make off-the-job sacrifices and cmpromises in family life for career Age stereotypes – knowing that a person falls into certain age range/generation we have the tendency to make assumptions about person’s physical, psychological and intellectual capabilities Managing workforce diversity diversity needs to be managed to have a positive impact on work behaviour and an organization e.g Canada Post’s Corporate Employement Equity Plan to enforce worforce relects population Boeing Canada Tech – Best Diversity Employers, create respectful environ. By promoting diversity – 21 deaf people with different stratergies on training, recruitment, and volunteerism Corus Entertainment inc – manages nationwide employement equity committee that advise company on diversity/equity issues – diversity training is common but not much affect – training should target skills Diversity programs will be more successful if : build senior management commitment and accountability, conduct needs assessment, develop well-define stratergy tied to business, emphasize team building, establish metrics and evaluate effectiveness See exhibit 3.7 Perception of Trust Trust a psychological state in which one has a willingness to be vulnerable and to take risks with respect to the actions of another party Ability refers to employee perceptions regarding management’s competence and skills benevolence refers to the extent that employees perceive management as caring and concerned for their interest and willing to do good for them integrity refers to employee perception that management adheres to and behaves according to set of values and principles that the employee finds acceptable Trust is also considered to be the most critical factor when judging best workplaces in Canada Trust components: Respect, credibility, fairness, pride and camaraderie exhibit 3.8 Perceived Organizational support employees general belief that their organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being Organizational support theory a theory that states that employees who have strong perception of organizational support feels an obligation to care about the organization’s welfare and to help the organizations achieve its objective. Exhibit 3.9 = number of factors that contribute to employees POS Person Perception in HR Perceptions in the Employment Interview Validity of interview improves when interviewers conduct a more structural interview Factors threaten validity: applicants usually motivated to present favorable impression of themselves, interviewers conduct applicants to a stereotype of the ideal applicant, interviewers have atendency to exhibit primacy reactions -interviewers have tendency to give less importance to positive information about applicant - tendency means that negative information has undue impact on decision Contrast effects: previously interviewed job applicants affect an interviewer’s perception of a current applicant, leading to an exaggeration of difference between applicants Perceptions of recruitment and selection Signaling theory job applicants interpret their recruitment experience as cues or signals about what it is like to work in an organization Perceptions and Performance Appraisals -Objective and subjective measures - Rater Errors Why study perception and personality in business school ? We are studying perception and personality because you are often dealing with people and different personalities and your interaction with people. To better understand what info people take in, how they interpret it and how they make attributions and decisions about events We don’t see reality – we interpret what we see and call it reality Personality and attribution processes guide our decision making and behaviour regardless of the truth of the attribution OB perspective : perception influence: our behaviours, sense of fairness, understanding of situation, out own levels of motivation, job satisfaction, productivitiy, etc 10 Common perceptual errors: Selective perception(come to an understanding of what categories you put them in – seeking out information reinforces that perception, also blocking out information that contradicts the perception) – halo effect – confirming impression from the first impression stereotyping – assumption on people based on social group they belong to; inappropriate but still persist, often people make stereotypes to save time and easy to explain something, secondly they are not taking the time to confirm/disconfirm the stereotypes projection- Chapter 4: Values, Attitudes and Work Behaviors W HAT ARE VALUES Values a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others. Preference aspect of this definition means that values have to do with what we consider good and bad broad tendency means values are very general and that they do not predict behavior in specific situation very well. Values have to do with what we consider good and bad.Values are motivational and very general. People tend to hold values structured around such factors as achievement, power, autonomy, conformity, tradition, and social welfare. Generational Difference in Values: Some indication that GEN x & Y inclined to value status & rapid career growth Cultural Differences in Values -Work Centrality: work valued in different countries – Japan is very work central -Hofstede’s Study: Questioned IBM employees about work related values – 4 basic dimensions: Power Distance the extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members Small power distance cultures, inequality is minimum, superiors are accessible and power diff are downsized (Denmark) Large Power distance – inequality is accepted as natural, suprioers are inaccessible difference highlights (Mexico) Uncertainity avoidance The extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations Strong uncertaintiy avoidaince cultural stress rules + regulation, hard work, conformity and security (Greece), Weak avoidance are less concerned with rules, conformity and seuirity and hard work (US + Canada) - Masculinity/feminity differentiate gender roles, support dominance of men and stress economic performance (i.e Japan). Feminist cultures accept fluid roles, stress equality and quality of life (i.eScandinavian) Individualism/Collectivism : Individualistic societies stress independence, individual intiative and privacy. Collective cultures favour interdependence loyalty to family or clan. (Canada – indiv, Pakistan – collective) Long-term/short-term orientation , LT- stress persistence, perseverance, thrift and close attention, ST stress personal steadiness and stability Implications of Cultural Variations Exporting OB Theories – Successful firms blend the values of their headquarter’s corporate culture with those of the host nation in overseas operations. Importing OB Theories – Successful importing of management practices is achieved by tailoring the practices to the home culture’s concerns. Appreciating Global Customers – is essential to understanding the needs and tastes of customers or clients around the world. Developing Global Employees – need to select, train and develop employees. W HAT AREA TTITUDE? Attitude: fairly stable evaluation tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person or category of person Attitude  Behaviour - Attitudes are function of what we think and what we feel, products relate to belief and value Often attempt to change attitude  persuasion Belief + Values  Attitudes  behaviour 11 W HAT ISJOBSATISFACTION?A collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs Facet Satisfaction – tendency for employee to be more/less satisfied with various facets of job What Determines Job Satisfactions needs and aspiration, challenging work, rewards + colleagues Discrepancy theory: A theory that job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and outcomes that are perceived to be obtained 1) people might differ in beliefs about the job in question 2) even if individuals perceive jobs as equivant they might differ in what they want from the jobs e.g strong evidence satisfaction with one’s pay is high Fairness Distributive fairness: Fairness that occurs when people receive the outcomes they think they deserve from their jobs Equity theory: A theory that job satisfaction stems from a comparisons of the input one invests in a job and outcome one receives in comparison with the input and outcome of another -leads to unfair judgement . Job satisfaction stems from a comparison of the inputs one invests in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or group. Inputs: Anything that people give up offer or trade to their organization in exchange for outcomes Outcomes: Factors that an organization distributes to employees in exchange for inputs Procedural Fairness: Fairness that occurs when process used to determine work outcome is seen as reasonable – relevant to performation evaluation, pay raise, promotion, lay off and work assignment – Following factors contribute: follow consistent procedure over time, uses accurate info and appears unbiased, allows 2-way communication, welcomes appeals of procedure or allocation Interactional fairness – that occurs when people feel they have received respectful and information communication about an outcome – extends beyond actual procedures used to the interpersonal treatment Respectful communication is sincere and polite and treats individual with dignity, informative communication Mood and Emotion Emotions: Intense, often short-lived feeling cause by particular events, moods- less intense, longer lived and diffused feeling affective event theory reminds use that jobs actually consist of events that have the potential to provoke feelings/emotions Emotional contagion – tendency for moods and emotions to spread between people or throughout groups – e.g team situations Emotional regulations: requirement for people to conform to certain “display rules” in their job behaviours - consequences: supressing emotion causes toll on job satisfaction and increase stress Key Contributors to Job Satisfaction: Mentally Challenging work, Adequate Compensation, Career Opportunities, People Consequence of Job Satisfaction Absence from work, turnover, Performance, OCB Organizational Citizenship Behaviour OCB is voluntary, informal behaviour that contributes to organizational effectiveness. In many cases, the formal performance evaluation system does not detect and reward it. Job satisfaction contributes greatly to the occurrence of OCB, more than it does to regular task performance.  The defining characteristics of OCB: The behaviour is voluntary.  The behaviour is spontaneous.  The behaviour contributes to organizational effectiveness.  The behaviour is unlikely to be explicitly picked up and rewarded by the performance evaluation system.  Helping behaviour and offering assistance.  Conscientiousness to the details of work.  Being a good sport.  Courtesy and cooperation. How does job satisfaction contribute to OCB? Fairness seems to be the key. Although distributive fairness is important, procedural and interactional fairness from a supportive manager seem especially critical. OCB is also influenced by employees’ mood at work. What is Organizational Commitment: Attitude that reflects the strength of the linkage b//w an employee and organization – relation with if someone tends to stay in the organization -Affective commitment is based on person’s id and involvement in organization – interesting and satisfying work, role clarity, having expectation met after being hired Involves: Emotional attachment to, identification with, involvement in the organization, highest predictor -Continuance commitment is based on cost that incurred leaving organization – feels there will be personal sacrifice leaving company, no good alternative employment – increases with time person is employed by organization 12 - Normative commitment is based on ideology or feeling of obligation, fostered by benefits that build a sense of obligation to the organization ,strong identification with an organization’s product or service socialization practices that emphasize loyalty to the organization Consequences of these:  All three forms of commitment reduce turnover intentions and actual turnover.  Affective commitment is positively related to performance.  Continuance commitment is negatively related to performance Is there a downside to organizational commitment? High levels of commitment have been implicated in unethical and illegal behaviour. Change in Worplace and Employee Commitment occurs because of changes in nature of employee commitment, changes in focus of commitment and multiplicity of employer-employee relations within organizations Cognitive Dissonance  Any incompatibility that an individual might perceive between two or more of his or her attitudes, or between his or her behaviour and attitudes.  Inconsistency is uncomfortable  Individuals will attempt to reduce the dissonance and, hence, the discomfort by changing the attitude or changing the behaviour Chapter 7: Groups And Teamwork W HAT IS A GROU& DEVELOPMENT Group two or more people interacting independently to achieve a common goal – interaction is most basic aspect of group (differentiate’s who’s a part of group and who is not)  Independence means group members rely to some degree on each other to accomplish goals  important for 2 reasons o groups exert a tremendous influence on us – social mechanisms which acquire belief, values, attitude, behaviour o groups provide context in which we are able to exert influence on others Formal work groups are groups that organization establish to facilitate the achievement of organization goals – e.g manager & employee – other types are task groups and committees o Task forces are temporary groups that meet to achieve particular goals or to solve problems o Committees are usually permanent groups that handle recurrent assignment outside the usual work group structure Informal groups emerge naturally in response to common interests of organizational members – can help/hurt organization Stages of Group Development 1. Forming orient themselves – awareness of dependency come to a purpose; what are we doing here, what is our purpose – situation is often ambiguous 2. Storming conflict often emerges, confrontation/criticism occur due to development, sorting out roles 3. Norming resolve issues and develop social consensus, becomes more cohesive, members resolve issues, develop consensus and compromise, info/opinions flow freely 4. Performing group devotes its energies towards tasks competition  achievement, creativity and mutual assistance, task accomplishment, achievement, creativity 5. Adjourning some group disperse v. ceremonies , emotional support for each other, monitoring how groups are developing Punctuated Equilibrium a model of group development describes how groups with deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions  PROBLEM SOLVING FOCUSED o Phase 1: first meeting and continues to mid group existence. Setting agenda, assumption, approaches and precedents that members develop in meeting o Midpoint Transition halfway time of a deadline – change in group’s approach and how manages the change is critical to progress. Need to move o Phase 2 decision and approached adopted – concludes with final meeting reveals burst of activity and concern for outsiders will evaluate the product o Prepare carefully for first meeting - as long as people working don’t look for radical progress during phase 1 o Manage midpoint transition carefully, evaluate strengths and weaknesses of ideas people generate in phase 1 13 Other pointers: - if you are the adviser of the group, stress motivation and excitement - if people are working, do not look for radical progress during Phase 1- manage the midpoint transition carefully – evaluate strengths/weaknesses of peoples’ ideas – essential issues are not likely to “work themselves out” in phase 2 - make sure adequate resources are available to execute phase 2 plan - resist deadline changes or it could damage the midpoint transition - at the midpoint, there can be either a successful or unsuccessful transition of group performance GROUP STRUCTURE AND ITS CONSEQUENCE Group Size: smallest group contains 2 people, congressional size is 300-400, most work groups are 3-20 o Size & Satisfaction larger groups report less satisfied with group membership than those who find themselves in smaller group – as opportunities for friendship increase, the chance to work on and develop these opportunities might decrease owing to the sheer time and energy required – as group size increase, verbal participation decreases o Size & performance dependant on exact tasks group needs to accomplish and how define performance is o Additive tasks: tasks in which groups performance is dependent on sum of performance of individual group o Disjunctive task: group performance is dependent on the performance of best member o Process losess – performance difficulties stemming from problems of motivation and coordination o Conjunctive tasks – performance is limited by performance of the poorest group members Group Diversity strong impact on interaction patterns – more diverse more difficult time communication effectively and becoming cohesive – tend to take longer to form, storm and norm. but sometimes perform better when task requires cognitive creativity demanding tasks and problem solving rather than routine work Group norms  Norms: collective expectation that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of each other. Norm Development most important function: provide regularity and predictability to behaviour – provides important psychological security and permits us to carry out daily business with minimal disruption o Develop to regulate behaviour that are considered at least marginally important to supporters e.g attendance o Attitudes affect behaviour – shared attitudes form basis of norms o Compliance of norms occur simply because it corresponds to privately held attitudes o Cases where individuals comply with norms that go against their privately help attitude and opionon e.g religious/work norms Typical norms o Dress norms dictate kind of clothing to wear to work – uniform v. business casual o Reward allocation norms 4 norms which dictate rewards such as promotion, favours and pay o Equity reward according to inputs o Equality reward everyone equally o Reciprocity reward people the way they reward you o Social Responsibility reward those who truly need the reward o Performance norms function of social expectation as it is of inherent ability, personal motivation or technology Roles position in a group that have set of expected behaviours attached to them – represent packages of norms Development of roles is indicative of fact that group members might also be required to act differently from one another 2 basic kinds of roles o Designated are formally prescribed by organization as means of dividing labour/responsibility o Emergent roles – develop naturally to meet the social-emotional needs of group members or assist in formal job accomplishment Role Ambiguity lack of clarity of job goals/ method – characterized by confusion about performance, how good performance can be achieved or what limits one authority and responsibility Elements which can lead to ambiguity o Organization factors – ambiguity b/c of function in organization o Role sender – unclear expectation of a focal person, o Focal person – clearly developed roles may not be digested – ambiguity decreases as length of time in job role increase Consequences: job stress, dissatisfaction, reduce commitment, lowered performance, intention to quit Role Conflict exist when individual faced with incompatible role expectation o Intrasender role conflict occurs when single role sender provides incompatible role expectatio
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