Midterm 2 Notes A comprehensive study package for midterm II covering chapters 5,6,711,13. Notes are arranged by which chapters where covered first to last. Containing PURELY notes from the book, this study guide contains every single important piece of i

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
WLU
Department
Business
Course
BU288
Professor
Contents
Chap 7 Groups and Teamwork ...................................................................................................................... 1
Chap 5 Theories of Work Motivation ............................................................................................................ 8
Chap 6 Motivation in Practice ..................................................................................................................... 14
Chap 11 Decision Making ............................................................................................................................ 20
Chap 13 Conflict and Stress ........................................................................................................................ 26
Chap 7 Groups and Teamwork
What is a Group?
A group is two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal.
Formal work groups are groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of
organizational goals.
Tasks Forces are temporary groups that meet to achieve particular goals or to solve particular problems,
such as suggesting productivity improvements.
Committees are usually permanent groups that handle recurrent assignments outside the usual work
group structures.
Informal groups are groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational
members.
Group Development
Typical Stages of Group Development
Forming: At this early stage, group members try to orient themselves by “testing the waters.” What are
we doing here? What are the others like? What is our purpose? The situation is often ambiguous, and
members are aware of their dependency on each other.
Storming: At this second stage, conflict emerges. Confrontation and criticism occur as members
determine whether they will go along with the way the group is developing. Sorting out roles and
responsibilities is often at issue here. Problems are more likely to happen earlier, rather than later, in
group development.
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Norming: At this stage, members resolve the issue that provoked the storming, and they develop social
consensus. Compromise is often necessary. Interdependence is recognized, norms are agreed to, and
the group becomes more cohesive (we will study these processes later). Information and opinions flow
freely.
Performing: With its social structure sorted out, the group devotes its energies toward task
accomplishment. Achievement, creativity and mutual assistance are prominent themes of this stage.
Adjourning: At this stage, rites and rituals that affirm the groups previous successful development are
common (such as ceremonies and parties). Members often exhibit emotional support for each other.
Punctuated Equilibrium
Punctuated equilibrium model is a model of group development that describes how groups with
deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions.
Phase I: Phase 1 begins with the first meeting and continues until the midpoint in the group’s existence.
The very first meeting is critical in setting the agenda for what will happen in the remainder of this
phase. Assumptions, approaches and precedents that members develop in the first meeting end up
domination the first half of the group’s life. Although it gathers information and holds meetings, the
group makes little visible progress toward the goal.
Midpoint Transition: The midpoint transition occurs at almost exactly the halfway point in time towards
the group’s deadline. The transition marks a change in the group’s approach and how the group
manages the change is critical for the group to show progress. The need to move forward is apparent,
and the group may seek outside advice.
Phase II: For better or for worse, decisions and approaches adopted at the midpoint get played out in
Phase 2. It concludes with a final meeting that reveals a burst of activity and concern for how outsiders
will evaluate the product.
Prepare carefully for the first meeting. What is decided here will strongly determine what
happens in the rest of Phase 1. If you are the coach or adviser of the group, stress motivation
and excitement about the project.
As long as people are working, do not look for radical progress during Phase 1.
Manage the midpoint transition carefully. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the ideas
that people generated in Phase 1. Clarify any questions with whoever is commissioning your
work. Recognize that a fundamental change in approach must occur here for progress to occur.
Essential issues are not likely to “work themselves out” during Phase 2. At this point, a group
coach should focus on the strategy to be used in Phase 2.
Be sure that adequate resources are available to actually execute the Phase 2 plan.
Resist deadline changes. These could damage the midpoint transitions.
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Group Structure and Its Consequences
Group structure refers to the characteristics of the stable social organizations of a group the way a
group is “put together.
Group Size
Size and Satisfaction Larger groups tend to report less satisfaction
Size and performance Varies on the task
Additive Tasks are tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of
individual group members.
Disjunctive tasks are tasks in which group performance is dependent on the performance of the best
group member.
Process losses are performance difficulties that stem from the problems of motivating and coordinating
larger groups.
Conjunctive tasks are those in which the performance of the group is limited by its poorest performer.
Group Norms
Social norms are collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of
each other.
Why? Norms develop because they provide regularity and predictability to behaviour.
About? Norms develop to regulate behaviours that are considered at least marginally important to their
supporters.
How? Individuals develop attitudes as a function of a related belief and value.
Norms are collectively held expectations, depending on two or more people for their existence.
Roles
Roles are positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviours attached to them.
Assigned Roles are formally prescribed by an organization as a means of dividing labour and
responsibility.
Emergent roles are roles that develop naturally to meet the social-emotional needs of group members
or to assist in formal job accomplishment.
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Document Summary

Chap 5 theories of work motivation 8. A group is two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal. Formal work groups are groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals. Tasks forces are temporary groups that meet to achieve particular goals or to solve particular problems, such as suggesting productivity improvements. Committees are usually permanent groups that handle recurrent assignments outside the usual work group structures. Informal groups are groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members. The situation is often ambiguous, and members are aware of their dependency on each other. Confrontation and criticism occur as members determine whether they will go along with the way the group is developing. Sorting out roles and responsibilities is often at issue here. Problems are more likely to happen earlier, rather than later, in group development.

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