Midterm 2 Notes A comprehensive study package for midterm II covering chapters 5,6,711,13. Notes are arranged by which chapters where covered first to last. Containing PURELY notes from the book, this study guide contains every single important piece of i
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Contents Chap 7 Groups and Teamwork1 Chap 5 Theories of Work Motivation8 Chap 6 Motivation in Practice14 Chap 11 Decision Making20 Chap 13 Conflict and Stress26Chap 7 Groups and Teamwork What is a Group A group is two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goalFormal work groups are groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goalsTasks Forces are temporary groups that meet to achieve particular goals or to solve particular problems such as suggesting productivity improvementsCommittees are usually permanent groups that handle recurrent assignments outside the usual work group structuresInformal groups are groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational membersGroup Development Typical Stages of Group Development Forming At this early stage group members try to orient themselves by testing the waters What are we doing here What are the others like What is our purpose The situation is often ambiguous and members are aware of their dependency on each otherStormingAt this second stage conflict emerges Confrontation and criticism occur as members determine whether they will go along with the way the group is developing Sorting out roles and responsibilities is often at issue here Problems are more likely to happen earlier rather than later in group development Norming At this stage members resolve the issue that provoked the storming and they develop social consensus Compromise is often necessary Interdependence is recognized norms are agreed to and the group becomes more cohesive we will study these processes later Information and opinions flow freelyPerforming With its social structure sorted out the group devotes its energies toward task accomplishment Achievement creativity and mutual assistance are prominent themes of this stageAdjourning At this stage rites and rituals that affirm the groups previous successful development are common such as ceremonies and parties Members often exhibit emotional support for each otherPunctuated Equilibrium Punctuated equilibrium model is a model of group development that describes how groups with deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitionsPhase I Phase 1 begins with the first meeting and continues until the midpoint in the groups existence The very first meeting is critical in setting the agenda for what will happen in the remainder of this phase Assumptions approaches and precedents that members develop in the first meeting end up domination the first half of the groups life Although it gathers information and holds meetings the group makes little visible progress toward the goalMidpoint Transition The midpoint transition occurs at almost exactly the halfway point in time towards the groups deadline The transition marks a change in the groups approach and how the group manages the change is critical for the group to show progress The need to move forward is apparent and the group may seek outside advicePhase II For better or for worse decisions and approaches adopted at the midpoint get played out in Phase 2 It concludes with a final meeting that reveals a burst of activity and concern for how outsiders will evaluate the product Prepare carefully for the first meeting What is decided here will strongly determine what happens in the rest of Phase 1 If you are the coach or adviser of the group stress motivation and excitement about the project As long as people are working do not look for radical progress during Phase 1Manage the midpoint transition carefully Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the ideas that people generated in Phase 1 Clarify any questions with whoever is commissioning your work Recognize that a fundamental change in approach must occur here for progress to occur Essential issues are not likely to work themselves out during Phase 2 At this point a group coach should focus on the strategy to be used in Phase 2 Be sure that adequate resources are available to actually execute the Phase 2 plan Resist deadline changes These could damage the midpoint transitionsGroup Structure and Its Consequences Group structure refers to the characteristics of the stable social organizations of a groupthe way a group is put together Group Size Size and SatisfactionLarger groups tend to report less satisfaction Size and performanceVaries on the task Additive Tasks are tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual group membersDisjunctive tasks are tasks in which group performance is dependent on the performance of the best group memberProcess losses are performance difficulties that stem from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groupsConjunctive tasks are those in which the performance of the group is limited by its poorest performer Group Norms Social norms are collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of each otherWhy Norms develop because they provide regularity and predictability to behaviourAbout Norms develop to regulate behaviours that are considered at least marginally important to their supporters How Individuals develop attitudes as a function of a related belief and valueNorms are collectively held expectations depending on two or more people for their existenceRoles Roles are positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviours attached to them Assigned Roles are formally prescribed by an organization as a means of dividing labour and responsibilityEmergent roles are roles that develop naturally to meet the socialemotional needs of group members or to assist in formal job accomplishment