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Final

Post Midterm Chapters Remaining Chapters 9,8,12,16,10 Compilation of notes purely from the textbook. A comprehensive study guide covering the above chapters where the majority of the final is taken from. All ideas graphs and terms are included.


Department
Business
Course Code
BU288
Professor
Simon Taggar
Study Guide
Final

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Contents
Chap 9 Leadership ......................................................................................................................................... 1
Chap 8 Social Influence, Socialization and Culture ....................................................................................... 7
Chap 12 Power, Politics and Ethics ............................................................................................................. 12
Chap 16: Organizational Change, Development and Innovation ................................................................ 19
Chap 10 Communication ............................................................................................................................. 25
Chap 9 Leadership
What is Leadership?
Leadership is the influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an
organizational context.
Strategic leadership is leadership that involves the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility
think strategically and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the
organization.
Are Leaders born? The Search for Leadership Traits
Research on Leadership Traits
Traits are individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability and personality.
Research has shown that some traits are associated with leadership such as Intelligence, Energy, Self-
confidence etc.
Limitations of the Trait Approach
It is difficult to determine whether traits make the leader or whether the opportunity for leadership
produces the traits.
Although there are some traits that are associated with leadership success, traits alone are not sufficient
for successful leadership. Traits are only a precondition for certain actions that a leader must take to be
successful.
The Behaviour of Leaders
The trait approach is mainly concerned with what leaders bring to a group setting. The limitations of this
approach gradually promoted an interest in what leaders do in group settings. Of particular interest
were the behaviours of certain group members that caused them to become leaders and the behaviour
of assigned or appointed leaders.

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Consideration and Initiating Structure
Consideration is the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and respect
for employees.
Initiating structure is the degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment.
The Consequences of Consideration and Structure
Consideration tends to be more strongly related to follower satisfaction, motivation and leader
effectiveness.
Initiating Structure is slightly more strongly related to leader job performance and group performance.
When employees are under a high degree of pressure due to deadlines, unclear tasks or
external threat, initiating structure increases satisfaction and performance (Soldiers behind
enemy lines)
When the task itself is intrinsically satisfying, the need for high consideration and high structure
is generally reduced. (The teacher who enjoys teaching)
When the goals and methods of performing the job are very clear and certain, consideration
should promote employee satisfaction, while structure might promote dissatisfaction. (The job
of refuse collection is clear in goals and methods, so employees appreciate social support but
view excessive structure as redundant.
When employees lack knowledge as to how to perform a job or the job itself ahs vague goals or
methods, consideration becomes less important, while initiating structure takes on additional
importance.
Leader Reward and Punishment Behaviours
Leader reward behaviour is the leader’s use of compliments, tangible benefits and deserved special
treatments.
Leader punishment behaviour is the leader’s use of reprimands or unfavourable task assignments and
the active withholding of rewards.
Situational Theories of Leadership
Situation refers to the setting in which influence attempts occur.
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory and Cognitive Resource Theory
Contingency Theory is a theory that states the association between leadership orientation and group
effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the situation is for exerting influence.
Some situations are more favourable for leadership than others, and these situations require different
orientations on the part of the leader.
Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) is a current or past co-worker with whom a leader has had a difficult
time accomplishing a task.
Situational Favourableness: Situational favourableness is the “contingency” part of Contingency Theory-
that is, it specifies when a particular LPC orientation should contribute most to group effectiveness.
Leader-member relations: When the relationship between the leader and the group member is
good, the leader is in a favourable situation to exert influence

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Task Structure: When the task at hand is highly structured, the leader should be able to exert
considerable influence on the group. Clear goals, clear procedures to achieve these goals and
straightforward performance measures enable the leader to set performance standards and
hold employees responsible.
Position Power: Position power is the formal authority granted to the leader by the organization
to tell others what to do.
Cognitive Resource Theory: A leadership theory that focuses on the conditions which a leader’s cognitive
resources (intelligence, expertise and experience contribute to effective leadership.
House Path-Goal Theory
Path-Goal Theory: Robert House’s theory concerned with the situations under which various leader
behaviours (directive supportive, participative, achievement-oriented) are most effective.
Leader Behaviour
Directive behaviour: Directive leaders schedule work, maintain performance standards, and let
employees know what is expected of them. Identical to initiating structure.
Supportive behaviour: Supportive leaders are friendly, approachable and concerned with
pleasant interpersonal relationships. Identical to consideration.
Participative behaviour: Participative leaders consult with employees about work-related
matters and consider their opinions.
Achievement-oriented behaviour: Achievement-oriented leaders encourage employees to exert
high effort and strive for a high level of goal accomplishment.
Situational Factors
Path Goal Theory is concerned with two classes of situational factors employee characteristics and
environmental factors.
Employees who are high need achievers should work well under achievement-oriented
leadership
Employees who prefer being told what to do should respond best to a directive leadership style.
When employees feel that they have rather low task abilities, they should appreciate directive
leadership and coaching behaviour, When the feel quite capable of performing the task, they
will view such behaviours as unnecessary and irritating.
Work environment
When tasks are clear and routine, employees should perceive directive leadership as a
redundant and unnecessary imposition, Participative leadership is useless here as well no need
to participate.
When tasks are challenging but ambiguous, employees should appreciate both directive and
participative leadership. Such styles should clarify the path to good performance and
demonstrate that the leaders concerned with helping employees to do a good job.
Frustrating, dissatisfying jobs should increase employee appreciation of supportive behaviour.
To some degree, such support should compensate for a disliked job, although it should probably
do little to increase effort.
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