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Post Midterm Chapters Remaining Chapters 9,8,12,16,10 Compilation of notes purely from the textbook. A comprehensive study guide covering the above chapters where the majority of the final is taken from. All ideas graphs and terms are included.

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Simon Taggar

Contents Chap 9 Leadership1 Chap 8 Social Influence Socialization and Culture7 Chap 12 Power Politics and Ethics12 Chap 16 Organizational Change Development and Innovation19 Chap 10 Communication25Chap 9 Leadership What is Leadership Leadership is the influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context Strategic leadership is leadership that involves the ability to anticipate envision maintain flexibility think strategically and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the organization Are Leaders born The Search for Leadership TraitsResearch on Leadership TraitsTraits are individual characteristics such as physical attributes intellectual ability and personality Research has shown that some traits are associated with leadership such as Intelligence Energy Selfconfidence etc Limitations of the Trait ApproachIt is difficult to determine whether traits make the leader or whether the opportunity for leadership produces the traits Although there are some traits that are associated with leadership success traits alone are not sufficient for successful leadership Traits are only a precondition for certain actions that a leader must take to be successful The Behaviour of Leaders The trait approach is mainly concerned with what leaders bring to a group setting The limitations of this approach gradually promoted an interest in what leaders do in group settings Of particular interest were the behaviours of certain group members that caused them to become leaders and the behaviour of assigned or appointed leaders Consideration and Initiating Structure Consideration is the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and respect for employeesInitiating structure is the degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment The Consequences of Consideration and Structure Consideration tends to be more strongly related to follower satisfaction motivation and leader effectivenessInitiating Structure is slightly more strongly related to leader job performance and group performance When employees are under a high degree of pressure due to deadlines unclear tasks or external threat initiating structure increases satisfaction and performance Soldiers behind enemy linesWhen the task itself is intrinsically satisfying the need for high consideration and high structure is generally reduced The teacher who enjoys teachingWhen the goals and methods of performing the job are very clear and certain consideration should promote employee satisfaction while structure might promote dissatisfaction The job of refuse collection is clear in goals and methods so employees appreciate social support but view excessive structure as redundant When employees lack knowledge as to how to perform a job or the job itself ahs vague goals or methods consideration becomes less important while initiating structure takes on additional importanceLeader Reward and Punishment Behaviours Leader reward behaviour is the leaders use of compliments tangible benefits and deserved special treatmentsLeader punishment behaviour is the leaders use of reprimands or unfavourable task assignments and the active withholding of rewardsSituational Theories of Leadership Situation refers to the setting in which influence attempts occurFiedlers Contingency Theory and Cognitive Resource Theory Contingency Theory is a theory that states the association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the situation is for exerting influenceSome situations are more favourable for leadership than others and these situations require different orientations on the part of the leaderLeast Preferred CoWorker LPC is a current or past coworker with whom a leader has had a difficult time accomplishing a taskSituational Favourableness Situational favourableness is the contingency part of Contingency Theorythat is it specifies when a particular LPC orientation should contribute most to group effectivenessLeadermember relations When the relationship between the leader and the group member is good the leader is in a favourable situation to exert influenceTask Structure When the task at hand is highly structured the leader should be able to exert considerable influence on the group Clear goals clear procedures to achieve these goals and straightforward performance measures enable the leader to set performance standards and hold employees responsible Position Power Position power is the formal authority granted to the leader by the organization to tell others what to doCognitive Resource Theory A leadership theory that focuses on the conditions which a leaders cognitive resources intelligence expertise and experience contribute to effective leadershipHouse PathGoal Theory PathGoal Theory Robert Houses theory concerned with the situations under which various leader behaviours directive supportive participative achievementoriented are most effectiveLeader BehaviourDirective behaviour Directive leaders schedule work maintain performance standards and let employees know what is expected of them Identical to initiating structureSupportive behaviour Supportive leaders are friendly approachable and concerned with pleasant interpersonal relationships Identical to consideration Participative behaviour Participative leaders consult with employees about workrelated matters and consider their opinions Achievementoriented behaviour Achievementoriented leaders encourage employees to exert high effort and strive for a high level of goal accomplishmentSituational Factors Path Goal Theory is concerned with two classes of situational factorsemployee characteristics and environmental factors Employees who are high need achievers should work well under achievementoriented leadershipEmployees who prefer being told what to do should respond best to a directive leadership style When employees feel that they have rather low task abilities they should appreciate directive leadership and coaching behaviour When the feel quite capable of performing the task they will view such behaviours as unnecessary and irritatingWork environmentWhen tasks are clear and routine employees should perceive directive leadership as a redundant and unnecessary imposition Participative leadership is useless here as wellno need to participateWhen tasks are challenging but ambiguous employees should appreciate both directive and participative leadership Such styles should clarify the path to good performance and demonstrate that the leaders concerned with helping employees to do a good jobFrustrating dissatisfying jobs should increase employee appreciation of supportive behaviour To some degree such support should compensate for a disliked job although it should probably do little to increase effort
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