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Midterm Review BU354.docx

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John Coffey

HumanResourcesManagementin Perspective What is Human Resource Management? -Managing people in organizations to drive successful organizational performance and achievement of organization’s strategic goals The Strategic Role of Human Resources Management -Human resources management (HRM) – the management of people in organizations to drive successful organizational performance and achievement of the organization’s strategic goals -HR drives the performance of the company -HRM involves formulating and implementing HRM systems that are aligned with the organization’s strategy to ensure that the workforce has the competencies and behaviours required to achieve the organization’s strategic objectives -Human capital – the knowledge, education, training, skills, and expertise of an organization’s workforce -Effective HR practices are related to better organizational performance Evolution of HRM -Scientific management -process of “scientifically” analyzing manufacturing processes to reduce costs and compensating employees based on their performance levels -Turning people into things -Human Relations Movement -Belief that the attitudes and feelings of workers are important and deserve more attention -Balance between people and things -Human Resources Movement -Focus on concern for people and productivity Dual HR Responsibilities -Operational HRM – Traditional HRM that includes administrative responsibilities (Ex. Payroll, selection, compensation, training, etc.) -Strategic HRM (new) – Contemporary HRM that participates in setting up a strategic plan for organizations and executes that plan (Ex. Designing strategies to attract top talent to gain competitive advantage) -Focus: Needed human capital/resources -HR specialists are expected to be change agents -Consultant/advisor to line management -People become change agents -Experts at managing change New HRM Competencies -Partnership with management -Employee support -Need to ensure things are going as planned (business) -HR provides support for employees Employee Engagement -Employee engagement: emotional and intellectual involvement in your work -Includes: intensity, focus, and involvement -Engaged employees drive performance and outcomes -Disengaged employees under perform and often leave -Turn your “crank” – want employees to want to come to work so that they do the extra mile -Three things are critical to engagement: 1. Opportunities to grow – scope to learn and advance 2. A mission that warrants extraordinary effort – company’s reputation 3. He behaviour and values of the leader – are they trusted and do you want to follow them Measuring the Value of HR: Metrics -Metrics – statistics used to measure activities and results -Traditional measures focused on activity and cost -Today’s measures focus on productivity, quality, sales, market share, and profits -Balanced scorecard – a measurement system that translates an organization’s strategy into a comprehensive set of performance measures Environmental Influences on HRM -To be effective, all managers must monitor the environment on an ongoing basis, assess the impact of any changes, and be proactive in responding to such challenges External Environmental Influences -Economic conditions -Labour market issues -Technology -Government -Globalization -Environmental concerns Economic Conditions -Affect supply and demand for products and services -Health of the economy -Primary sector – jobs in agriculture -Secondary sector – jobs in manufacturing -Tertiary or service sector – jobs in public administration Labour Market Issues Increasing Workforce Diversity -Increasing workforce diversity: visible and ethnic minorities; women; Aboriginal population; people with disabilities -Canada’s workforce is among the most diverse in the world -Another aspect of diversity is generational differences -Traditionalists- individuals born before 1946 -Baby Boomers – individuals born between 1946 and 1964 -Generation X – Individuals born between 1965 and 1980 -Generation Y – Individuals born since 1980 Non-Standard of Contingent Workers -Contingent/non-standard workers – workers who do not have regular full-time employment status -The terms of employment include part-time, fixed-term, temporary, home, and standby workers, those who have more than one job -Non-standard work is often poorly paid, offers little or no job security, and is generally not covered by employment legislation -Most part time employees don’t get benefits - Good -Easier to dismiss part time employees - Good -High cost of hiring for training - Bad -Lack of loyalty and efficiency – Bad Technology -Concerns over data control, accuracy, right to privacy, and ethics -Ex. Blocking certain websites for employees -Technology has helped to blur the line between work and family time Government -Each of the provinces and territories have their own human rights, employment standards, labour relations, health and safety, and workers’ compensation legislation Globalization -Globalization – the emergence of a single global market for most products and services -Trends: -Firms extend business operations abroad -Emergence of one world economy -Increased international competition -Multinational corporations: conduct business around the world, seek cheap skilled labour -Events that occur internationally could affect your company -Must be culturally sensitive and aware – both in Canada and internationally Environmental Concerns -Topics of increasing importance: -Sustainability -Climate change -Global warming -Pollution -Carbon footprints -Extinction of wildlife species -Ecosystem fragility Internal Environmental Influences -Organizational culture -Organizational climate -Management practices Organizational Culture -Organizational culture – the core values, beliefs, and assumptions that are widely shared by members of an organization -Having a positive culture has a positive impact on employee branding, recruitment, retention, and productivity -You need to fit into the organizational culture to work there Organizational Climate -Organizational climate – the prevailing atmosphere that exists in an organization and its impact on employees Ex. Friendly/unfriendly, open/secretive, rigid/flexible, innovative/stagnant Management Practices -Empowerment – providing workers with the skills and authority to make decisions that would traditionally be made by managers -Found once you start working there Growing Professionalism in HRM -Certification – recognition for having met certain professional standards TheChangingLegalEmphasisComplianceand ImpactonCanadianWorkplaces The Legal Framework for Employment Law in Canada -Regulations – legally binding rules established by special regulatory bodies created to enforce compliance with the law and aid in its interpretation -Employer – right to modify employee work terms for legitimate business needs -Government – balance needs of employer and employee -Employee – right to be protected from harmful business practices Canadian Legislation -Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - Basic rights for all Canadians -Human Rights Legislation - Protection from discrimination -Employment Standards Legislation - Minimum terms and conditions of employment -Ordinary (Common) Laws - Content or context specific -Collective Bargaining Agreement -Employment contract Legislation Protecting the General Population 1. The Charter of Rights and Freedoms 2. Human Rights Legislation The Charter of Rights and Freedoms -Charter of Rights and Freedoms – Federal law enacted in 1982 that guarantees fundamental freedoms to all Canadians -Applies to all levels of government and agencies under their jurisdiction -The Charter provides: 1. Freedom of conscience and religion 2. Freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression 3. Freedom of peaceful assembly 4. Freedom of association -Right to equal protection and benefit of the law without discrimination on the basis of: race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability -Equality rights – Section 15 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which guarantees the right to equal protection and benefit of the law without discrimination -Quebec has their own charter of rights and freedoms – 70 of them -Charter of Rights always prevails Human Rights Legislation -Human rights legislation – jurisdictions specific legislation that prohibits intentional and unintentional discrimination in employment situations and in the delivery of goods and services -Supercedes the terms of any employment contract or collective agreement -Human rights legislation prohibits discrimination against all Canadians Discrimination Defined -A distinction, exclusion, or preference based on one of the prohibited grounds that has the effect of nullifying or impairing the right of a person to full and equal recognition and exercise of his or her human rights and freedoms Intentional Discrimination -An employer cannot discriminate directly by deliberately refusing to hire, train, or promote an individual -Discrimination is not necessarily over (blatant) it could be subconscious -An employer is also prohibited from intentional discrimination in the form of differential or unequal treatment -Differential or unequal treatment – treating an individual differently in any aspect of terms and conditions of employment based on any of the prohibited grounds -Ex. You cannot ask a female to demonstrate her lifting when applying for a job unless all applicants are asked to do so -An employer may not ask someone else to discriminate on his or her behalf -Discrimination because of association – denial of rights because of friendship or other relationship with a protected group member Unintentional Discrimination -Unintentional/constructive/systemic discrimination – discrimination that is embedded in policies and practices that appear neutral on the surface and are implemented impartially, but have an adverse impact on specific groups of people for reasons that are not job related or required for the safe and efficient operation of the business Permissible Discrimination -Bona fide occupational requirement – a justifiable reason for discrimination based on business necessity (that is, required for the safe and efficient operation of the organization) or a requirement that can be clearly defended as intrinsically required by the tasks an employee is expected to perform -Justifiable reason for discrimination -Based on business necessity (safe and efficient operations) -Intrinsically required by job tasks (Ex. Vision standards for bus drivers) -Ex. Can’t be a truck driver if you’re blind Reasonable Accommodation -Reasonable accommodation – the adjustment of employment policies and practices that an employer may be expected to make so that no individual is denied benefits, disadvantages in employment, or prevented from carrying out the essential components of a job because of grounds prohibited in human rights legislation -Employers are expected to accommodate to the point of undue hardship -Undue hardship – the point to which employers are expected to accommodate employees under human rights legislative requirements Disability -Basis determined by courts -Differential treatment -Enumerated ground (condition or clause protected by legislation) -Substantive sense (is burden imposed or benefit withheld?) -Accommodation -Respect dignity -Discrimination must be legally defensible -Most appropriate accommodation should be undertaken Harassment -Unwelcome behaviour that: demeans, humiliates, or embarrasses a person plus a reasonable person should have known would be unwelcome -Employer responsibility: -Protect employees from harassment -Includes harassment by clients or customers -The Supreme Court has made it clear that protecting employees from harassment is part of an employer’s responsibility to provide a safe and healthy working environment -If harassment is occurring, of which they are aware or ought to have been aware, they can be charged, as well as the alleged harasser -Sexual harassment – offensive or humiliating behaviour that is related to a person’s sex, as well as behaviour of a sexual nature that creates an intimidating, unwelcome, hostile, or offensive work environment, or that could reasonably be thought to put sexual conditions on a person’s job or employment opportunities -Sexual coercion- harassment of a sexual nature that results in some direct consequence to the worker’s employment status or some gain in or loss of tangible job benefits -Sexual annoyance – sexually related conduct that is hostile, intimidating, or offensive to the employee but has no direct link to tangible job benefits or loss thereof -To reduce liability, employers should: -Establish sound harassment policies -Communicate policies to all employees -Enforce policies in a fair and consistent manner -Take an active role in maintaining a working environment that is free of harassment Harassment Policies -Effective harassment policies should include: 1. A clear workplace anti-harassment policy statement 2. Information for victims (definitions, examples) 3. Employees’ rights and responsibilities 4. Employers’ and managers’ responsibilities 5. Anti-harassment policy procedures 6. Penalties for retaliation against a complainant 7. Guidelines for appeals 8. Other options such as union grievance procedures and human rights complaints 9. How the policy will be monitored and adjusted Discrimination – Some Grounds -Race and colour - Illegal in every jurisdiction -Religion - Accommodate with time to pray and allow religion clothing -Sexual orientation - “Common-law partners” includes same sex couples -Age - Mandatory retirement age eliminated in many jurisdictions -Family status - Increasing need to accommodate parental obligations ‘Sandwich generation’ Enforcement -Enforcement of human rights acts is the responsibility of the human rights commission in each jurisdiction -Challenges of human rights legislation are heard by the human rights tribunal -An employer’s obligations include the following: 1. Demonstrating an awareness of the issues of discrimination or harassment 2. Fulfilling post-complaint actions 3. Resolving the complaint by demonstrating reasonable resolution and communication -If discrimination is found, two forms of remedies can be imposed: systemic and restitutional -Systemic remedies – forward looking solutions to discrimination that require respondents to take positive steps to ensure compliance with legislation, both in respect to the current complaint and any future practices -Restitutional remedies – monetary compensation for the complainant to put him or her back to the position he or she would be in if the discrimination had not occurred (this includes compensation for injury to dignity and self-respect), and may include an apology letter Workplace Bullying (Psychological Harassment) -Characterized by: -Domination and control -Use of others to serve self-interests -Contempt for others -Four bully markers: -Imbalance of power -Intent to harm -Threat of further aggression -Terrorizing (when unchecked) -Men bully men, women bully women unless there is a sexual thing there -Bullies bully down and suck up so they climb the corporate ladder -Bullies get away with it because no one wants to stand up to them -Promotes 3 perceptions: -Sense of entitlement – privilege and right to control -Intolerance of differences – difference = inferior -Liberty to exclude -Four roles: -Bully -Bullied -Bystander -Witness – the one that comes forward in some way -Keep log of bullying incidents and speak to HR Employment Equity Legislation -Employment equity legislation is intended to remove employment barriers and promote equality for the members of the four designated groups: women, Aboriginals, persons with disabilities and visible minorities -Promotes equality, removes employment barriers -Four designated groups: women, visible minorities, persons with disabilities, Aboriginal peoples -Make reasonable accommodations for employees -Glass ceiling – an invisible barrier, caused by attitudinal or organizational bias, that limits the advancement opportunities of qualified designated group members -Employment equity program – a detailed plan designed to identify and correct existing discrimination, and achieve a balanced representation of designated group members in the organization Employment Equity Program -Implementation steps: 1. Senior Management Commitment and Support 2. Data collection and analysis 3. Employment Systems Review 4. Plan Development 5. Implementation 6. Monitoring. Evaluation. Revising The Plight of the Four Designated Groups -Women -Underrepresentation in certain fields – engineering, natural sciences, mathematics -People with Disabilities -Underrepresentation in all areas -Lower pay -Aboriginals -Concentration in low skill, low paying jobs -Visible minorities -Underemployed – being employed in a job that does not fully utilize one’s knowledge, skills, and abilities - Ex. Immigrant doctors driving cabs -Canada is slow at recognizing degrees from other countries Employment Standards Legislation (ESA) -Employment (labour) standards legislation – laws present in every Canadian jurisdiction that establish minimum employee entitlements and set a limit on the maximum number of hours of work permitted per day or week -Establish minimum terms for: -Wages, overtime pay -Paid holidays and vacations -Maternity/paternity leave -Bereavement/compassionate care leave -Termination notice -Employment contracts may exceed minimums -Canadian stat holidays – HR has to be aware of this to schedule days off (based on Christian background) Enforcement of Employment Standards Act -Complaints filed with ministry of labour or counterpart -Filed complain is settled through the ministry, not civil court -Can’t “double dip” -Limitation periods for filing -Only so long to file complaint (can’t go back 25 years) -Maximum claim limit for unpaid wages -Ontario ESA: $10, 000 Respecting Employee Privacy -Employers must maintain the ability to effectively manage their employees and prevent liability to the company which can be held legally liable for the actions of its employees -They want to eliminate time wasted and abuse of company resources -Employees are concerned with privacy – their control over information about themselves and their freedom from unjustifiable interference in their personal life -The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) governs the collection, use, and disclosure of personal information across Canada -Electronic surveillance is permitted – write up a policy Video Surveillance -Some employers install video surveillance equipment to prevent employee theft and vandalism and to monitor productivity -Employees must be made aware of the surveillance -Not advised if reasonable alternatives exist OrganizationalEthics An Ethics Definition -Business ethics – comprises principles, values, and standards that guide behaviour in the world of business -Personal ethics – comprises principles, values, and standards that guide your behaviour in the world -Principles: are specific and pervasive boundaries for behaviour that universal and absolute -Ex. Freedom of speech, justice, equal rights, etc. -Values: are used to develop norms that are socially enforced -Ex. Integrity, accountability, trust, etc. Ethical Intelligence 1. Do no harm – to self and others -Corollaries: prevent hard minimize unavoidable harm 2. Make things better – for self and others -Treat yourself and others appropriately 3. Respect others “Do unto others as they would have you do unto them” -Confidentiality – keeping confidential what you have been asked to keep confidential -Truth telling - knowing how to be truthful without doing harm -Promise keeping (true to your word) – walking your talk 4. Be fair – to be fair is to give others their due -Distributive justice – fairness of a decision outcome -Procedural justice – fairness of the process used to make a decision -Interactional justice – fairness in interpersonal interactions by treating others with dignity and respect -Informational justice – was there fairness in information used to justify the change, decision, strategy, outcome, etc. 5. Be loving – the WD-40 of relationships; it’s not absolutely necessary but it sure makes things flow better Ask Yourself 1. Will this avoid causing harm? 2. Will it make things better? 3. Is it respectful? 4. Is it fair? 5. Is it a loving thing to do? If you can answer “yes” to all 5, then it is the ethically intelligent thing to do Designing andAnalyzing Jobs Fundamentals of Job Analysis -Job analysis is a process by which information about jobs is systematically gathered and organized -Job – a group of related activities and duties, held by a single employee or a number of incumbents -Position – the collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person Uses of Job Analysis Information -Job analysis – the procedure for determining the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of each job, and the human attributes (in terms of knowledge, skills, and abilities) required to perform it -Once this information is gathered it is used for developing job descriptions and job specifications -Used for human resource planning; recruitment and selection; compensation; performance management; labour relations; training, development and career management and restructuring Steps in Job Analysis -Step 1: Review relevant background information -Step 2: Select jobs to be analyzed -Step 3: Collect data on job activities -Step 4: Verify/modify data if required -Step 5: Write job descriptions and job specifications -Step 6: Communicate and update information as needed Step 1: Review Relevant Background Information -Organizational structure – the formal relationships among jobs in an organization -Organization chart – a “snapshot” of the firm, depicting the organization’s structure in chart form at a particular point in time – Ex. City of Orillia organization chart -The top is not necessarily the most powerful. It depends on organization, industry, and people -People in the same ‘line’ don’t necessarily have the same amount of power for the same reason -Includes the review of relevant background information, such as organization charts, process charts, and existing job descriptions -Process chart – a diagram showing the flow of inputs to and outputs from the job under study Bureaucratic Organization Structure -‘Functional chimney’ – don’t talk to others. Ex. Marketing and finance don’t talk to one another – they don’t use the same terms – it’s hard -Laurier is bureaucratic with a little bit of flat – finance doesn’t talk to HR Flat Organization Structure Matrix Organization Structure Boundaryless Structure -Joint ventures with customer, supplier, and or competitors -Ex. Laptop manufacturers – get their parts from all over. Intel in particular (they’re in ALL laptops). Sales team for ACER can’t talk to sales team of DELL Adhocracy -Decentralizes authority -Need to be self-responsible to work here -Free flowing, colleague management -Potential for chaos, frustrating Step 2: Select Jobs to be Analyzed -Job design – the process of systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to perform a specific job -Work simplification – an approach to job design that involves assigning most of the administrative aspects of work (such as planning and organizing) to supervisors and managers, while giving lower-level employees narrowly defined tasks to perform according to methods established and specified by management -Behavioural Aspects -Reduce boredom, fatigue, increase motivation -Job enlargement (horizontal loading) -Job rotation -Job enrichment (vertical loading) -Team based job design -Job enlargement (horizontal loading)- involves assigning workers additional tasks at the same level of responsibility to increase the number of tasks they have to perform -Job rotation –involves systematically moving employees from one job to another -Job enrichment (vertical loading) – any effort that makes an employee’s job more rewarding or satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties -Ergonomic Aspects -Physical needs of workers -Health and safety -Team-based job designs – job designs that focus on giving a team, rather than an individual, a whole and meaningful piece of work to do and empowering team members to decide among themselves how to accomplish the work Competency-Based Job Analysis -Writing job descriptions based on competencies rather than job duties -It emphasizes what the employee must be capable of doing, rather than a list of the duties he or she must perform -The job required competencies can be identified by simply completing this sentence “In order to perform this job competently, the employee should be able to….” -Reasons use of competency analysis is becoming more common: -It encourages workers to learn and rotate among jobs -Most strategic approach to defining jobs -Supports performance management process -Examples of competencies: -Mathematics -Leadership (Strategic thinking, motivating) -Technical competencies for specific jobs Step 3: Collecting Job Analysis Information The Interview -Three types of interviews are used to collect job analysis data: individual interviews with each employee; group interviews with employees who have the same job; supervisory interviews with one or more supervisors who are thoroughly knowledgeable about the job being analyzed Questionnaire -Having employees or supervisors fill out questionnaires to describe job-related duties and responsibilities is another good method of obtaining job analysis information -Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) a questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs -The advantage of the PAQ is that is provides a quantitative score or profile of the job in terms of how that job rates on six basic characteristics: information input, mental processes, work output, relationships with others, job context, and other job characteristics -Functional Job Analysis (FJA) – a quantitative method for classifying jobs based on types and amounts of responsibility for data, people, and things. Performance standards and training requirement are also identified Observations -Observation involves watching employees perform their work and recording the frequency of behaviours or the nature of performance Participant/Diary Log -Diary/log – daily listings made by employees of every activity in which they engage, along with the time each activity takes National Occupational Classification (NOC) -Reference tool for writing job descriptions and job specifications -Compiled by the Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) -Contains comprehensive, standardized descriptions of about 30, 000 occupations and the requirements for each (skill type and level) -NOC and its counselling component, the career handbook, both focus on occupations rather than jobs -An occupation is a collection of jobs that share some or all of a set of main duties Step 4: Verifying Information -Verify with: -Workers currently performing the job – go to people you haven’t talked to -Supervisors -Increases validity and reliability -Participants in the data collection techniques will be more honest and consistent knowing that they may later be held accountable for their contributions Step 5: Writing Job Descriptions and Job Specifications -Job description – a list of the duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, and working conditions of a job – one product of a job analysis Job Identification - The position title specifies the title of the job Job Summary - Should describe the general nature of the job Relationships- Indicates the jobholder’s relationships with others inside and outside organization Duties and Responsibilities - Detailed list of the job’s major duties and responsibilities Authority - Defines the limits of the jobholder’s authority Performance Standards/Indicators - Indicates the standards the employee is expected to achieve in each of the job description’s main duties and responsibilities Working Conditions and Physical Environment -Job descriptions not legally required but highly advisable -The only criteria examined should be knowledge, skills, and abilities required for the essential duties of the job -Job specification – a list of the “human requirements,” that is the requisite knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform the job – another product of a job analysis -Unjustifiably high educational/experience requirements may lead to systemic discrimination -They should not require a degree for a non-degree job like a barista -All listed qualifications are bona fide occupational requirements based on the current job duties and responsibilities Step 6: Communication and Preparation for Revisions -Job analysis must be structured enough to allow for modifications as required while still providing current and future employees with an understanding of what they are expected to do -Anticipate modifications: -Restructuring -New product development -Technological changes -Competitors -Information provided from the job analysis must be communicated to all relevant stakeholders -Sometimes they don’t do it because “I don’t need to do it, I know what the job requires” Branding –Personal& Employer What is a Brand? -Brand – the meaning one attaches to a product, service, or company either intended or unintended -Brands gives meaning and provides a label -The special meaning of brands can change consumers perceptions and experiences with a product What is a Value Proposition? -Customer value proposition – consists of the sum total of benefits which a vendor promises a customer will receive in return for the customer’s associated payment -Differentiates your product from competitors -Consists of all benefits customers receive from a market offering Employer Brand Proposition -Consists of the sum total of benefits which an employer promises that an employee will receive in return for the employee’s engagement in the organization -Experience of employees: -Feelings, emotions, senses, realities -Personal development and economic benefits -Psychological benefits: purpose, belonging, recognition, etc. Personal Brand -Consists of the sum total of benefits which you promise that an others will receive in return for their involvement/engagement with you -This includes: -Friends -Colleagues -Family -Associations -Organizations -In essence everyone -Personal branding – the process by which you differentiate yourself and stand out from a crowd by identifying, articulating, and communicating your unique value proposition -This includes but is not limited to the body, clothing, appearance, and knowledge contained within, leading to an indelible impression that is uniquely distinguishable -What makes you unique and potentially superior? -What makes you memorable, meaningful, likable, adaptable for current and prospective employers? -What are your points of difference? -What are your points of parity? -Everywhere you go you communicate your personal brand -Brands include other’s perceptions of your personality, values and beliefs, actions, appearance, and so on HumanResourcesPlanning The Strategic Importance of Human Resources Planning -Human resources planning (HRP) – the process of forecasting future human resources requirements to ensure that the organization will have the required number of employees with the necessary skills to meet its strategic objectives -Key steps in the HRP process include: -Forecasting demand for labour -Analyzing the labour supply -Planning and implementing HR programs to balance supply and demand -Helps an organization achieve its strategic goals and objectives, achieve economies in hiring new workers, make major labour market demands more successfully, anticipate and avoid shortages and surpluses of human resources, as well as control or reduce labour costs -Alignment of HR planning to strategic decisions is essential to an organization’s success -People are not the most important asset…the right people are Results of Inadequate HR Planning -Vacant positions create costly inefficiencies -Mass layoffs (downsizing) requiring severance pay -Simultaneous layoffs and hiring reduces more and productivity, creates turnover -Inability to meet operational and strategic plans -Expensive to layoff and hire back and layoff and hire back Environmental Scanning The Importance of Environmental Scanning -Environmental scanning – an assessment of external factors influencing the organizations ability to find and secure talent from the external labour market including economic, competitive, legislative, social, technological, and demographic trends Steps in the HRP Process -Step 1: Forecasting the availability of candidates (supply) -Step 2: Forecasting future HR needs (demand) -Step 3: Planning and Implementing HR Programs to Balance Supply and Demand Forecasting the Availability of Candidates (Supply) -How will projected openings be filled? Two sources of supply: -Internal – present employees who can be trained, transferred, or promoted - External – people in the labour market who are not currently working for the organization Forecasting the Supply of Internal Candidates Skills Inventory and Management Inventories -Skills inventories -Summary of current employee’s education, experience, interests and skills -Used to identify eligibility for transfer/promotion -Management inventories -Used to identify eligibility for transfer/promotion -Summary of management employees qualifications, skills, interests, managerial responsibilities Replacement Charts and Replacement Summaries -Replacement charts – visual representations of who will replace whom in the event of a job opening. -Likely internal candidates are listed, along with their age, present performance rating, and promotability status -Replacement summaries – lists of likely replacements for each position and their relative strengths and weaknesses, as well as information about current position, performance, promotability, age and experience Succession Plans -Ensuring supply of successors for key jobs so that careers can be effectively planned and managed -Includes: -Analysis of demand for managers and professionals -Audit and projection of likely future supply -Planning individual career paths, career counselling -Accelerated promotions -Planned strategic recruitment Markov Analysis -Markov analysis – a method of forecasting internal labour supply that involves tracking the pattern of employee movements through various jobs and developing a transitional probability matrix -The skills and capabilities of current employees must be assessed and skills inventories prepared Forecasting the Supply of External Candidates -Some jobs cannot be filled with internal candidates becaus
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