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BU-385 Final Exam Study Notes.docx

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BU3852013Chapter 6 Process Design and Facility LayoutProcess Designdetermining the form and function of how goods or services are producedProcess design occurs as a matter of course when new products are being designed or existing products are redesigned Also occurs due to technological changes in equipment and methods improvementMake or Buydecide whether to make a part of product inhouse or to buy it or a segment of production process from another companyFactors that affect make or buy decisions are core capabilities capacity quality demand technology and cost4 basic types of processes job shop batch repetitive assembly line and continuousJob ShopJob Shopa process type used when a low quantity of highvariety customized goods or services is neededWork shifts from one small job to the next each with somewhat different requirementsHigh flexibility of equipment and skilled workers are important characteristics The managerial challenge in a job ship is to schedule the jobs so that the due dates are met and the resources are utilized as much as possibleBatchBatch Processa type of process used when a moderate volume and variety of goods or services is desiredThe equipment need not be as flexible as in a job ship but process is still intermittent The skill level of workers doesnt need to be as high as in a job shop because there is less variety in the jobsThe managerial challenge is scheduling batches in order to meet planned production and demand while utilizing the resources at a high levelCapacity issues and technology management are more important than in job shipsRepetitive1PageBU3852013Repetitive Processa type of process used when higher quantities of more standardized goods or services are neededThe standardized output means only slight flexibility of equipment is neededSkill of workers is generally lowProduction Linea sequence of machinesworkstations that perform operations on a part productAssembly Linea production line where parts are added to a product sequentiallyThe line can either be machinepaced same speed or workerpaced variable speedThe managerial challenges in a productionassembly line are capacity balance technology management quality and materials managementContinuousContinuous Processused when a high volume of highly standardized output is requiredThere is almost no variety in output and hence no need for equipment flexibilityAs in assembly lines workers are generally low skilledProduct is usually also continuousThe managerial challenges in a continuous process are the same as in an assembly line but because of faster speed of production greater care is required for automated control of the flow and start and stop of production are more challengingThe ideal is to have production process capabilities such as equipment flexibility match product requirements such as product variety and quantity volumeAnother consideration is that products often go through a life cycle that begins with low quantity which increases as the product becomes better knownWhen that happens a manager must know how to shift from one type of production process to anotherThe processes do not always exist in their pure formsit is not unusual to find hybrid processesFocused Factoryprocesses that produce high quantity of products specialize in these products2PageBU3852013Within each process many individual operations are performedThe choice of operations used in a process depends on nature shape size quantity variety and other competitive attributes of the products to be produced by the processAUTOMATIONAutomationusing machineryequipment with sensing and control devices that enable it to operate automaticallyIt has low variability machines do not get distracted injuredAutomation is frequently touted as a strategy necessary for competitivenessAutomation is costly less flexible and hard to changeSometimes workers fear automation because they may lose their jobsThat can have an adverse effect on morale and productivity3 kinds of automation fixed programmable and flexibleFixed AutomationThe most rigid of the 3 typesUses highcost specialized equipment for a fixed sequence of operationsLow unit cost and high volume are its primary advantagesMinimal variety and the high cost of making major changes in either product or process are its primary limitationsProgrammable AutomationUses highcost generalpurpose equipment controlled by a computer program that provides both the sequence of operations and specific details about each operationChanging the process is as easydifficult as changing the computer programCan produce wide variety of lowvolume products in small batchesNumerically Controlled NC Machinesmachines that perform operations by following mathematical processing instructionsComputerized Numerical Control CNCindividual machines have their own computer3Page
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