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Training&development - exam study.docx

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Nashifa Carter

Training & Development: Exam Study - Content Final exam content  Section A: 5 definitions (out of 10 each worth 5 marks) = 25 marks  Section 2: choice do 1 of 2 - Short Answer questions = 10 marks  Section 3: Mini-Cases (like in text) - No choice 2 cases = 10 + 15 = 25 marks Content INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DESIGN MODEL (ISD)  Scientific model of the training and development process, that consists of a needs analysis, training design and delivery, and training evaluation  Needs analysis shows whether training is needed and what gaps there are that need to be filled  Purpose of training is improve performance and organizational effectiveness Learning Styles  Using all four styles is best  Importance of learning cycle; see chart  All four steps in learning cycle should be part of learning experience  Learning modes o Thinking (AC)  Gather information by thinking about issues, concepts and ideas o Feeling (CE)  Direct experience and involvement o Watching (RO)  Observe and reflect, different point of view o Doing (AE)  Doing something for practical value  Implications for training o People differ on how they learn o Training programs should be designed with each learning mode as part of a sequence of learning experience Adult Learning Theory  Adults need to know why they learn  It has to be meaningful  They need opportunity to practice o Massed versus Distributed Training  Refers to how the segments of a training program are divided and whether the training is conducted in a single session (massed) or is divided into several sessions with breaks or rest periods between them (distributed) o Whole versus Part Learning  Refers to whether the training method is learned and practiced at one time or one part at a time o Overlearning  Continued practice even after trainees have mastered a task so that the behaviour becomes automatic  Automaticity  The performance of a skill to the point at which little attention from the brain is required to respond correctly  They need feedback  Adults learn through observation, experience, and interaction with others  Andragogy o An adult-oriented approach to learning that takes into account the differences between adult and child learners  Design and instruction of training should be joint responsibility of trainer and trainee  Adults should provide input about training they receive Model of Training Effectiveness  Highlights the linkages between training and learning and between learning and individual performance and organizational effectiveness.  Things that influence learning and retention is cognitive ability, job attitudes, self-efficacy, training motivation and personality characteristics  After learning and retaining the content from the training the trainee must transfer that into individual behaviour and performance which is called transfer of training  The last step is how individual behaviour and performance have an effect on organizational effectiveness The Needs Assessment Process  Step 1 o Concern  Listed under reasons or “pressure points” in diagram  Step 2 o Importance  Training manager must be aware of strategic orientation  Cost implications  If it is important concern, than should be able to demonstrate that correcting problem will increase productivity or client satisfaction  Step 3 o Consult stakeholders  Support from key players/stakeholders are important to have at the beginning of an needs analysis  Top management should understand rationale for training  Training analysts must obtain why the needs analysis is being done and who will be involved  All stakeholders must buy into the needs analysis to ensure data collection will result in accurate information and they are committed to success of the program o Step 4  Data collection  Documentation of the concern through collection of information from three levels of analysis o Organizational  Provides information about strategies and context and finds out where the training is needed in the organization  Involves strategy, environment, resources, and context  Indicates training needs and probability of success  Must align with organization’s strategy  Show type and amount of training needed  Training and development embedded in the external environment  Environment is dynamic and uncertain o New technology, competitors, recessions, and trade agreements  Training programs often direct result of government regulations (safety)  Also can be from organizations attempt to establish a niche market (new technology, etc.)  Must make sure the organization has the resources (money, time, and expertise) to design and deliver a training program  Training programs also require materials, equipment, and facilities  Determines if training is more cost effective or if another solution would be cheaper  Must be aware of the organizational context which refers to the organizational climate and training transfer climate  Organizational climate is collective attitudes towards work, supervision, company goals, policy, and procedures  Training transfer climate is whether the climate facilitates or inhibits the application of training on the job  Looking at the culture is important too, which is the shared beliefs amongst employees  Organizations should adopt a continuous learning culture where employees feel like learning and skill acquisition are a part of their job responsibility and that it is important to the work  These cultures and climates are important because if they are not strong than there is no point of training o Task  Provides information about tasks and relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform the job  6 steps in task analysis  1. Identify the target jobs.  2. Obtain a job description.  3. Develop rating scales to rate the importance of each task and the frequency with which it is performed.  4. Survey a sample of job incumbents.  5. Analyze and interpret the information.  6. Provide feedback on the results.  Cognitive task analysis  Focuses on understanding the mental processes and skills required for a job  Better for complex jobs  Looks at things like decision making, problem solving, etc. that aren’t directly observable  Best methods of this is interviews and observation  Team task analysis  Looks at team-based competencies associated with tasks o Communication, interaction, and coordination of tasks  Looks at interdependencies of a job and cognitive skills needed to interact in a team  Best methods are group interviews, review of existing information, observation, questionnaires, examining past events o Person  Provides information about an employee’s level of performance and finds out who needs to be trained  3 step process  1. Define the desired performance. o Standard or acceptable level of performance o Proficiency assessment – what competencies are needed to complete job  2. Determine the gap between desired and actual performance. o Comparison is made from performance appraisals, work samples, observations, self-assessments, and formal tests  3. Identify the obstacles to effective performance. o Many reasons for gaps and solutions for each type identified in “barriers to effective performance”  Include lack of knowledge, skills, motivation  Counterproductive system  Group norms o Outcomes  Good list is within diagram  Development of measures for training evaluation  Where the training is needed  Design and delivery of training Barriers to Effective Performance  only the first two (lack of knowledge and skills) suggest a training solution  a flowchart of decision making is used to find best solutions to this o first step is to decide if the problem or gap is worth pursing (time and money) o try some quick fixes  clarify expectations and standards  setting goals  provide necessary resources  provide performance feedback o if can’t be quick fixed, must find source of problem by doing an analysis  Is desired performance being punished? If so remove  Is poor performance being removed? If so remove  Performance consequence used effectively? If not rearrange consequences  Can use contingency management o bad behaviour has negative consequences, which is not repeated by employee o good behaviour has good consequence, which is repeated by employee o similar to conditioning theory o if that doesn’t solve it, must look at skill deficiency  must see if employee could do the job if their life depended on it  if they can than training is not needed  if they can’t do it than look at other methods before training  lower expectations  simplify task  transfer employee  remove obstacles o lack of authority o bad tools/tech o conflicting responsibility o work overload  if there is no potential for the employee to change their skill deficiency, than remove them, if there is some potential than do training Determining if Training is the Best Solution  Must look at all the barriers and the flowchart of decision making  Performance is important and could be costly from lost productivity  Employees don’t know how to perform effectively  Employees received little to no training  Employees can’t demonstrate correct knowledge/behaviour  Performance expectations are clear and no obstacles to performance  Positive consequences for good performance, while poor performance is not rewarded  Employees receive timely, relevant, accurate, constructive, and specific feedback about their performance (a feedback issue)  Other solutions like job transfer or redesign are more expensive than training Gagne-Briggs: Nine events of Instruction 1. Gain attention  Trainee engagement  Present a thought-provoking problem  Getting them interested and motivated, trainees should know why training is important 2. Describe objectives  Must communicate what they will learn, what to expect, and what they will accomplish  Should know how they would apply on the job  Might provide a demonstration of desired behaviour  Helps trainees focus on what they need to learn and to think about goals 3. Stimulate recall of prior knowledge  Show relation of what they know with what they are about to learn  Let trainees discuss what they already know about training material  Trainer might provide framework to help trainees learn 4. Present the material to be learned  Logical and consistent manner  Trainer asks questions at various points during training and ask trainees to provide examples of own experience 5. Provide guidance to learning  Direction on how best to learn material  Using relevant examples, asking questions, and discussions to help trainees toward main learning points 6. Elicit performance practice  Opportunity to practice and apply material  Trainers provide enough time for this 7. Provide informative feedback  Trainees should receive feedback on their performance  Essential for trainees to know and understand what they did right, what they did wrong, and how to correct it  Leave them with understanding of what they did well and what they need to improve on 8. Assess performance  Test trainees on their learning during and after training  Formal test or informal question/answer  Make sure trainees learn the material before moving on 9. Enhance retention and transfer  Trainees must know how learning is applied to the job  Trainers show how the learning applies to the work situations  Ask trainees when they would use it at work helps 10. CLOSE PROGRAM – conclude it, show a successful completion Self-Directed Learning  Process in which individuals take initiative and responsibility for learning and manage their own learning experiences  Seek out necessary resources to engage in learning  Assess their own needs, and evaluate effectiveness of meeting needs  Allows access to training materials when they want to, at their own pace, and in sequence they prefer Different types of training sessions  Skipped for now – must look at the slides because can’t find in textbook The Transfer System  All factors in the person, training, and organization that influence transfer of learning to job performance  Important predictors of transfer of training  The LTSI can be used to diagnose transfer system; identify barriers and type of intervention to overcome problem  Benefits is that it recognizes importance of systematic approach  There is no one strategy to improve transfer of training, multiple strategies should be used MODEL OF TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS  Trainee characteristics have direct effect on learning and retention  Learning and retention have direct effect on individual performance  Individual performance has a direct effect on organizational effectiveness  Now can add that work environment and trainee characteristics to link up with individual behaviour and performance  Also training design has direct link to learning and retention and individual performance  Vertical transfer is the linkage between individual level training outcomes and organizational effectiveness o Relationship is not one-to-one o A change in improvement of employee performance (horizontal transfer) is necessary for vertical transfer, but not sufficient (other factors involved) Data for Evaluation  Reactions o Typically done by questionnaires o Affective reactions  Likes and dislikes of the program o Utility reactions  Perceived usefulness of a training program  Indicate to some degree whether transfer is likely or not o Immediate post-training questionnaires are the best  Learning o Declarative learning  Acquisition of facts and information  Minor effect on behaviour  Easy to administer; multiple-choice, short answer, etc. o Procedural learning  Organization of facts and information into a smooth behavioural sequence  Largely effect behaviour including transfer of training  Harder to administer; simulations, demonstrations, etc. o Learning tests can provide legal defense to show training was done  Behaviour o Display of newly learned skills o 3 basic approaches  Self-reports  Easy and practical  Individuals reports if they used what they learned on the job  Accuracy is problematic – people might lie  Observations  Supervisors/trainers/clients/co-workers observe if application of learning is done  More reliable and useful if observer has extensive contact  Production indicators  Assessed through productivity records such as sales or absenteeism  Measures impact of training  Can provide precise data  Not always the best because other factors might be in play  Motivation o Training motivation and motivation to transfer o Use expectancy theory  Valence  Attractiveness of outcomes  Instrumentalities  Positive/negative consequence  Expectancies  Probability of transfer resulting in successful performance  Self-efficacy o Trainees belief in their ability to perform behaviours o Assess confidence in doing tasks  Perceived and/or anticipated support o Perceived support  Degree in which trainee reports receiving support in transfer of skills o Anticipated support  Degree in which trainee expects to be supported in attempt to transfer of skills  Organizational perceptions o Perception of transfer climate and learning culture o 8 cues to trigger reactions that encourage/discourage transfer  The eight scales include goal cues, social cues, task and structural cues, positive feedback, negative feedback, punishment, no feedback, and self-control.  Organizational results o Effects on training to the organization o Testing causality requires experimental designs that are hard to implement o Hard data  Results assessed objectively  Hard to obtain sometimes o Soft data  Results assessed subjectively o Difficult to assess impact of training directly o Return on expectations  Measurement of a training programs ability to meet managerial expectations Methods of Management Development  Informational o Helping managers adapt principle
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