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Midterm Study Notes CH250 .pdf

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BIOCHEMISTRY KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTSBiochemistry the study of the chemistry if living organisms especially the structure and function of their chemical componentLiving Organisms differ from inanimate objects Reproduction self replication evolve far from equilibrium senseresponse to change in environment much more complex mixtures if thousands of chemical molecules that are highly organizedThree Unifying Principles of Life 1ALL living organisms are comprised of molecules built from the same kinds of monomeric units 2In ALL living organisms the function of a macromolecule is determined by its structuresequence3Living organisms differ from each other due to their unique set of macromoleculesWater and Life Water is one of the essential molecules for lifewithout water there can be no life as we understand itwater makes up 70 if the mass of the human body solvent for most molecules in living organisms drives the arrangement of biological macromolecules into structures critical for their function most biochemical reactions occur in an aqueous environment water participates in many biochemical reactionsStructure of Water109 degrees tetrahedron but not quite BIOCHEMISTRY KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTSHow liquid water differs from solid water solid water ice is a crystal of water molecules oriented tetrahedrally to maximize theof Hbonds each water molecule Hbonds 4 molecules creates an open structure less dense than liquid water water expands when frozen liquid water consists of small networks of Hbonded molecules networks are irregular and varied each water molecule Hbonds on average 34 other molecules and bonds are distortednetworks are constantly forming and reforming in liquid water Water as a solvent universal solvent dissolves more types of molecules to a greater concentration than any other solvent solutes are hydrophilic waterloving Solvating Ionsdipoles on water orient around ions to form a hydration shelldipole interactions are weaker and separate ionic bonds since they partially neutralize the ionic charge on the ionsdissolved ions acquire greater freedom of motion entropy Hydrophobic molecules in wateroil and water dont mix nonpolar molecules are usually insoluble in water molecules minimize their contact with water by caging the molecules iwater molecules form an ordered network around nonpolar groups to maximize HBonds molecules minimize their contact with water byforming molecular aggregates of nonpolar molecules Amphipathic molecules in water Amphipathic a molecule that contains both polarhydrophilic and non polar hydrophobic regions these molecules folds itself until all hydrophobic bits are exposed inside and hydrophilic bits on the outside IE DNA is a amphipathic molecule Hydrophobic effect the tendency of water to minimize its contacts with non polar substances thereby inducing the substances to aggregate or fold in on itselfthis is the driving fore for assembly of membranes in most proteins and other biomolecules
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