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Chemistry Midterm #2 Review - Amino Acids, Proteins, and Peptides.docx

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James Gerlach

Amino Acid StructureGeneral StructureA carboxyl group An amino groupAlpha carbon that has a chiral centreoThe chiral centre makes them enantiomersExceptionsGlycineoNo chiral centre because the R group is just a hydrogenProlineoA cyclic amino acidNomenclatureBy configuration R rectusstraight and S sinisterleftoBased on the CahnIngoldPrelog priority rulesBy optical activity for dextorotatory andfor levorotatoryo rotates rightrotates leftBy configurationand DLoNamed by the spacial configuration of its atomsoRelates the molecule to glyceraldehyde which is chiral and tis two isomers are labeled D and LoCORN rule for determining if it is DLCOOH R NH2 and HIf arranged clockwiseDArranged counterclockwise LAll of the common amino acids are L amino acids there is no clear explanation for thisClasses of Amino Acidsbased on the attached R groupNonpolar alipathic R groupsoStuctural formulas show the state of ionization that would predominate at pH 70oAlipathic because all of the R groups are chains and they tend to be composed of only Cs and Hs with no charged groupsAromatic R GroupsoHave a cyclic R groupPolar uncharged R groupsoR groups are more soluble in water more hydrophillicoContain functional groups that can form hydrogen bonds with waterPositiviely charged R groupsoOne of the most hydrophilic R groupsoHave a significant positive charge at a pH of 70oThey have an additional positively charged amine group as part of the side chainNegatively charged R groups
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