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analyt261 midterm notes.docx

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David Smith

Accuracy A measure of how close a measured value is to the true value. Acid acid dissociation constant Ka. Equilibrium constant for the reaction of an acid, HA, with H2O. HA + H2O A + H3O+ Ka= A-H+ / HA Acids (stong/weak) A substance that increases the concentration of H+ when added to water. Analyte Substance being measured or detected. In the flask of a titration Argentimetric A titration using Ag+ ion Bases A substance that decreases the concentration of H+ when added to water Base hydrolysis constant The equilm constant for the reaction of a base, B with H2O. B+H2O—BH+ + OH- Kb=BH+ - OH- / B Chelate Chelate effect The observation that a single multidentate ligand forms metal complexes taht are more stable than those formed by several individual ligands with the same ligand atoms. Chelating ligand A ligand that binds to a metal through more than one atom. Complexometric titrations A titration in which the reaction between analyte and tirtant involves complex formation (a structure consisting of a central atom or ion (usually metallic), bonded to a surrounding array of molecules or anions (ligands, complexing agents) Conj acid base pair An acid and a base taht differ only through the gain or loss of a single proton Diprotic acids or bases Compounds that can donate or accept two protons Endpoint Point in titration at which tere is a sudden change in a physical property such as indicator colour, pH, conductivity or absorbance. Used as a measure of the equivalence point. Equivelance point Point in a titration at which teh quantity of titrant is exactly sufficient for stoichiometric reaction with the analyte Formation constant, kf Equilibrium constant for thej reaction of a metal with its ligands to form a metal-ligand complex. Conditional formation constant: equilm constant for formation of a complex under a particular stated set of conditions, such as pH , ionic strength, concentration fo auxiliary complexing species. Fraction of dissociation For teh dissociatio- of an acid (HA), the fraction of acid in the form A Fraction of association: for the reaction fo a base (B) with H2O, the fraction of base in teh form BH+ Hydrolysis Reaction with water. The reaction B+H2O—BH+ + OH- is the hydrolysis of a base. Indicators A compound having a physical property (usually colour) THAT CHANGES ABRUPTLY NEAR THE EQUIVELANCE POINT of a chemical reaction. Ligand An atom or a group attached to a central atom in a m
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