Intro to Mass Communications in Canada.docx

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Communication Studies
Paul Heyer

Week 7 9/14/2012 11:29:00 AM Intro to Mass Communications in Canada -Mark Hayward  CRTC-Canadian Radio Telecommunication Commission (Canadian Content Regulations) Certain percentage of content must be Canadian ie. Corner Gas, Flashpoint, Drake, Nickelback  Rates for cable, cellphone  How people use communication technology, interpret texts,  Use mylaurier account to reach prof  Tutorials 30%, Midterm 20%, Research Paper 20%, Final Exam 30%  Midterm multiple choice  Office hours: Wednesdays 10:30 am-2:00 pm DAWB 4-103B  TA: Meagan Suckling Tuesday 3-4pm DAWB 3-127 [email protected] 48 hrs email  Complete all readings before lecture and tutorial Lecture 2  What is Canadian Media Overview o Content  Canadian production+actors  Refers to places+people in Canada+everyday life in Canada  May be apparent to non- Canadians might not  Restrictive if all Canadian media talks about Canada  Justin Bieber Canadian-No 1 else is who works with him o Creators o Ownership  Rogers, Bell(Majority held by Canadian Stock Holders) not required to show Canadian content(Internet,cellphone) o Consequences  Cultural Consequences- Community, sense of identity, people who create the media define how we fit in canadian society,  Canada former colony of uk-british vs Canada,  American Influence on Canadian media (Language, Identity)  Economic Consequences  Canada smaller than America  Canadian rights must be respected  American record stores, movie theatres in Canada  Canadian media less profitable, so why include it?  History of Canadian media  The Aird Commission (1929)-establish public broadcaster  The massey commission(1951)-Outlines threat to Canadian culture and identity due to America  The Fowler Commission(1955-1958)-The recommendation to create an independent governing body for radio and television  The Broadcast Act(1991)- Lays out foundations is media law in Canada to this day  Identity o Consumers can access Canadian media (books, songs,shows, movies) o Access to be involved in Canadian media o Laws+Regulations o 80% live near American border (more influence) o Canada Needs protection from American influence therefore commissions are set in place o Internet will not be regulated  Industry o Bi lingual o Public, private, community broadcasting o CBC-Public o Private-Regular shows o Community-Station run by local  Content Regulation o Serve to safeguard enrich the cultural political social and economic fabric of Canada o Should encourage the development of Canadian expressions by providing a wide range of programming that reflects Canadian values o Freedom of Expression+Keep Canadians exposed to Canadian content ( some international media outlets are not available in Canada) o No Quota on film/video games o M A P L  Music-composed by Canadian  Artist-performed in Canada  Performance-the musical selection consists of live performances that is recorded wholly in Canada+boracasts live in Canada  Leader-Lyrics written entirely by a Canadian  Ownership o 60% of television on CBC must be Canadian o 55% of Private must be Canadian per channel o 1/3 of radio music must be Canadian o Specific times (prime time) o Origin of Media in Canada(what’s Canadian about it) o Ways in which Canadian Government has intervened in media to help Canadians express themselves  Direct involvement in production or funding-supporting only Canadian media  The institution of content quotas (setting parameters)  Canadian Tax goes to CBC (Advertisements helps funding)  Decreasing over time-1 B $ a year funding creates culture protection for Canadians  Subsidies help Canadian media production  Canadian companies must give back to Canadian communities with tax payer money especially when few competition ie Rogers, Bell  Canadian Media Policy o Multicultural media and Canadian Identity  Immigrants have effect on Canadian Identity in media  Canada stands for freedom of expression however immigrants have different cultural backgrounds  Balance of protecting Canada’s media vs incorporating immigrants in media o Non-Regulation of new media  Internet  Introduction to research assignment  What are the cultural industries? o Way of describing particular kinds of industries of cultural products Ex. (Experiences-Museum, Exposed to Disney World o Cultural institutions generate dollars from tourist + community o They include areas to film and television, publishing, music, museums o Defines ways to remember past/think about who we are o Digital Era-all media on one format-internet, tv, computer, phone(music, video, picture, text)  Cross media convergence o Economic convergence- concentration of ownership o Canadian media was discussed in terms of contents creators and owners o The importance of media was discussed from a cultural point of view the argument that Canadian media needed to be protected for Canadian Identity o Economy keeping revenue from media in Canada o Products are often central to how individuals and communities view themselves and the world around them o Many of the products while reproduced on a mass scale make use of craft forms of production and creation o Vertical Integration- Buy out manufacturers, internalize a business o Horizontal integration- Buying competitor out(Best Buy+Future Shop same owners) o Henry Jenkins outlined the following forms of convergence:  Technological-different kinds of technology in laptops,  Economic-  Social  Creative  Global  Trends in media ownership New Lecture  What is an Audience-That which could be heard o Conceptions of audiences are often grounded in particular contexts (industry, governments, scholarly research o Mass Media audiences are theoretical constructs as much empirical realities o Audiences- construct ways of thinking about people o Governments interpret Audiences as groups of citizens, that need education, have rights+right to be informed, o Industry for Profit method-what is this person interested in watching, what kind of advertisements should be shown o Research audiences as a social formation a way of describing how people behave in relation to media o How does video game play affect family relationships?  Industry doesn’t care-interested in consumption What is the affect?  Is media consumption a focused and sustained activity? Or is it a brief encounter? o Multi task or just consume media, Eat+media? o Amount of attention spent on media piece o Norms and beleifs are internalized through repeated exposure o Relatively passive rather than interpreting media messages o Hypodermic needle model- Internalizing media exposed, some not true  Uses + Gratifications o Audience chooses to consume to satisfy needs and fufill wants o Freedom to select what they watch and how they interpret it o What do people do with Media? –to be entertained…..etc  Media could be consumed everywhere-how do we think about this? o Transmedia strategies- ways of thinking about audiences as they move between different media as they consume it at different+same times o Democratizing but also commodified Old Media/New Media  Old media-dying, dead, or undead o Bruce Sterling coined the term dead media as a way of talking about media move from contemporary to media that didn’t make it o Forgets how to use old media, record players-needle outside or inside o When will the web interface become a dead medium  Media change: emergent, dominant, and residual o Emergent-new and developing ideas, practices and artifacts that may become dominant o Dominant- Those ideas, practices and artifacts that play a structuring role in society in a particular area of society o Residual- Ideas, artifacts or practices from the past that continue to be present today, although often combined with dominant or emergent practices  Residual technology of record players linked to turn tables  The death of the newspaper: An economic explanation o An economic justification for its decline o A case based on the habits of readers o Rise of craigslist, move to online advertising guaranteed to finding guaranteed interested consumers o Changes in habits, linked to commuting have meant less time/space for newspaper for reading (Mass transit instead of private cars)s o Declining revenue has made financing tranditional news production less viable (Paying journalists) o Online media compete for readers but are not usually subscription based nor do they possess the public service mission of many newspapers o Free newspaper draw large audiences in urban areas but do not necessarily lead to newspaper purchase down the road o They play a key role in informing citizens allowing them to participate in democratic society o As a media form, the allowed for extended coverage of issues and topic, less amenable to television or online media (less info even though more images, audio)  The death of the newspaper: A reader’s perspective  3 types of bias o Media Bias  Focus more on expression+emotion to entertain o Ideological Bias  How eveins are discussed when they are covered  Think perceptions of scenarios, want everyone to understand it in the same way o Gatekeeping Bias  Whether or not a particular story is covered and how much coverage is given  the first part of the term is how mass media is structured in Canada  -policies:  -structure: patterns of media across the entire sector, if different media had -occupied separate sectors one trend that has taken place is that the bringin -together of these companies.  -ways of thinking  -thinking about media   audience that used
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