CS 101 Midterm Notes.docx

14 Pages
Unlock Document

Wilfrid Laurier University
Communication Studies
Jeremy Hunsinger

CS 101 Study Notes Specific Course Description This course introduces students to the contemporary communication and media landscapes of Canada. It introduces students to the central institutions, issues, and debates that are central to understanding mass communication in Canada as it occurs in contemporary society and affects our cultural milieu. Students will explore a variety of topics including the Can-Con regulations and their operation in relation to the Canadian music, film, and cultural industries. Does Communications studies prepare you for public relations? NO! Week 1: What is Communications Studies? * Communication studies is an academic field that deals with processes of human communication, commonly defined as the sharing of symbols to create meaning (How messages are interpreted, how we communicate, encoding and decoding a message) Communication a Primer (Video)  Claude Shannon Diagram  Noise: any outside force acting on a transmitting signal (ex. Reading, sound, motion and light, static, distortion of picture…)  We get two possible messages: buy and sell  English language is ½ redundant  Besides noise, other factors in the background can make it impossible for the receiver to pick up message without distortion  Use of the flame as a transmitter and a symbol for mystery (smoke signals, hand signals) – a symbol is both individual and anonymous  Problem of communication between man and machine  Man is made of multiple yes/no decisions based on impulse (fire/no fire) Week 2: Canadian Media Structures and Institutions/what is an argument? What is an Institution? - Rules and governing systems that we organize ourselves by (laws, norms, etc) - Examples: Government, Universities, CRTC, CBC… - All institutions have goals – they mediate our lives in some way (mediation is when something comes between you and something else) Cultural Sovereignty: The control of your cultural sphere with the nation or state – also includes notion of cultural values and identity  Nation- Group of people with same ideals, languages, goals and aspirations Broadcasting: Any transmission or program that is meant for the public Public Broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service. Public broadcasters receive funding from diverse sources including license fees, individual contributions, public financing and commercial financing. They provide content that Canadians are supposed to watch.  CBC (Intended to help you develop cultural sovereignty)  BBC (British Broadcasting Channel – British model for the CBC)  PBS (Public Broadcasting System – American model for CBC)  TVO  TeleQuebec  Vision TV  Aboriginal People’s Television Network Is Canada a unified nation?  The case of Quebec…It is part of the Canadian state, not the Canadian nation  Does everyone in Canada have the same ideals, language or political aspirations?  Canada wants cultural sovereignty because of Americanization – losing our identity  Canada is both unified and divided Cultural Policy: Allowing people to be more or less integrated into Canada – this is one thing our institutions of media operate in and through Ownership: Media ownership in Canada is governed by the CRTC (The CRTC does not regulate newspapers or internet media)  Rogers, Bell and Telus have a majority of the Canadian shareholders Consolidation/Concentration/Convergence:  A process whereby progressively fewer individuals and organizations control increasing shares of the mass media  Only a few corporations that have control = bias High and Low Culture:  Divide is hard to maintain  BBC changed in the 60’s when popular cultural became more important than high culture Canada and Television:  Canada only entered the realm of television in the 1950’s – late comer  TV was developed in the 1920’s-1930’s  The first broadcast didn’t happen until the 1940’s/1950’s  First TV sets were all within a 15 mile radius of NYC – very wealthy  Canadian values portrayed on television: multiculturalism, Tim Hortons (what it means to be Canadian)  Canada spends $34 per person on broadcasting per year, as opposed to the $87 per person and $107 per person figure in the USA and Britain respectively Lincoln Report/Heritage Committee:  Recommendations of Canadian policy  Wants to separate Canadian policy by sector (I.e. Film, television, etc)  Priority programming must be aired during prime time – must have a certain amount of Canadianness  Integrate Broadcasting Act and Telecommunications Act Cultural Elitism/Ethnocentrism: Canada thinks we have better media than everyone else until there is competition; then we vote against it. Believing we have better media means we will consume more of it Broadcasting Act (1991):  Broadcaster owned/controlled by Canadians  CRTC regulates and follows the Broadcasting Act  Rules of Canadian broadcasting  Goal is to maintain Canada’s cultural fabric, thereby strengthening its economic, political and social structures  Governs any transmission in Canada  We need things broadcasted in all three official languages (English, French, Inuit) MAPL: Music, Artist, Performance, Lyrics  How to determine if music is Canadian enough for radio (Has to fulfill all 2/4 requirements)  Designed primarily to increase exposure of Canadian musical performers, lyricists and composers to Canadian audiences Canadian Content: Direct involvement in production or funding through subsidy;  The funding of a public broadcaster using tax revenue;  The amount of money going to the broadcaster have been diminishing  It is important that out of all the media we are exposed to, we are able to hear a Canadian voice or watch Canadian programming  Subsidies  Telefilm  Canada council  Some publishers which contribute to our culture The institutions of content quotas  “CanCon” doesn't apply to film, newspapers, publishing or any new media (video games, internet sites)  50% on private stations during primetime must be Canadian television program  35% of all music aired each week must be Canadian  French stations must play 65% of music in French Week 3: Media Industries and Media Convergence Mass Communication: How we use the media to mould and direct the public Private Media:  Television at home – until the 60’s, people didn’t own their own televisions. It was a public affair  Music is now highly individualized (iPod) Media Convergence:  A global marketplace dynamic in which different companies and sectors are being brought together, both as competitors and collaborators, across traditional boundaries of industry, technology, geography, and customer channels  The merging of mass communication outlets: print, radio, television, internet through various digital media platforms  Different kinds of content (mixed media)  Examples of media convergence: laptops, smart phones, portable internet devices  In 1983, there were 50 major corporations that produced most of the media in the world. Today there are 5 (They produce messages that serve themselves  3 Corporations make up 83% of the media production in francophone Canada 1. Quebecor (right wing bias) 2. State Media (Middle wing bias) 3. No left wing bias  Journalism is the fourth estate  There is a law against Canadian broadcasters being owned by foreign forces  The Big 3: CTV Globemedia, CanWest, Quebecor Different Kinds of Convergence: 1. Technological (The Digital Revolution) – because text, images and music and all be digitized, they can be handled by devises using digital technology 2. Economic – companies no longer specialize in particular media; spread across media (ex. th The News Corporation owned FOX, 20 Century fox, and some newspapers) 3. Social – multitasking with digital technologies (I.e. Talking on the phone in front of the TV) 4. Creative – Watching media and turning it into something else (I.e. Tweeting TV hosts) 5. Global – No longer live isolated; exposure to films, TV and music from around the world; we have the most access to information Conglomeration: A larger corporate ownership of multiple media properties Alternative Media: There are many different media outlets, some of which we produce independently Vertical Integration: Companies which are engaged in related dependent parts of the supply chain merging. Ex. A TV making company buys a TV delivery company Horizontal Integration: When one company merges with/takes over another company involved in the same activity/industry. Ex. Radio station buys another radio station - More revenue, more advertising, bigger audiences, less competition - Lots of horizontal integration in the newspaper industry in the 1930’s Reasons for allowing greater concentration:  Larger companies are less likely to be taken over, protecting national “champions”  Convergence allows for better services given the relatively small size of the Canadian market ◦ Companies need to be big in order to protect themselves from outside companies taking over; this is the reason to allow Canadian companies to grow Dangers that might result from greater concentration:  Diversity of viewpoints in greatly reduced  Near monopoly conditions mean that there is no competition to lower costs Canadian Broadcasting Policy:  Controlled by Canadians  Includes public and private communications  Reflects Canadian values  Promotes Canadian content  Makes use of Canadian creative resources CRTC: Canadian Radio Television and Telecommunications Commission  Regulatory agency for broadcasting and telecommunications (Broadcasting Act and Telecommunications Act)  Created in 1976 when it took over responsibility for regulating telecommunications  Makes sure there’s enough Canadian content  Do not want to regulate new media because it inhibits people from using things on the Internet  Who owns what in Canadian broadcasting – which companies merge together so there isn’t too much power in one company The CRTC introduced new rules in 2008:  Companies are limited to only owning two media in a single market  Companies cannot own more than three stations in a single market  No single company can own holdings amounting to more than 35% of the total national audience in any one medium Telecommunications Act (1993):  Regulates telecommunications by ensuring reliable services, protecting privacy, and protect and encourage Canadian media  Administered by Canadian-Radio Television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) which reports to Industry Canada  Replaced the Railway Act of 1906, which governed telecommunications prior to 1993 Canada’s Largest Private Sector Media Companies: 1. Astral 2. Bell Media 3. Postmedia Network Inc. 4. Quebecor Media Inc. 5. Rogers Communications Inc. 6. Shaw Communications Inc. 7. TELUS Communications Company 8. Torstar * Rogers, Bell and TELUS dominate the wireless market * Rogers, Bell, TELUS, Shaw and Videotron dominate the internet market Kent Commission (1980):  A response to growing concerns over concentration of media ownership in Canada  Also known as the Royal Commission on Newspapers  Responses to the simultaneous closure of the Ottawa Journal and the Winnipeg Tribune Epic 2015 Movie Tim Berners Lee invents Internet in Switzerland - Amazon.ca = an online service that sells everything - Google = most powerfu
More Less

Related notes for CS101

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.