CS 101 Final Review

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Communication Studies
Ian Roderick

CS 101 Final Review 4/13/2012 9:06:00 AM FILM Canadian Cinema · Disconnect between critics, audiences and producers of Canadian cinema · Hollywood cinema is the dominant form but not the only form · What is Canadian Cinema? o Directors find it really hard to explain o Some words included weird, sneaky, quiet… but no agreement  Key People o Louis Selznick  film producer from the states  Fascinated with the fledgling motion picture business, and recognizing a business opportunity with great potential, he joined a film production company  “if Canadian stories are worthwhile then companies will be sent to Canada to make them.” o James Freer  drawing people to markets, first Canadian film maker o Florence Lawrence  first movie star o Bart Beatty  3 distinct difficulties  Canadian films are unpopular with Canadians  If the are popular, they are regarded as inartistic  If successful they tend to be regarded as somehow “un-Canadian  Cinema of failure o John Grierson  invited in 1938 to act as consultant for NFC/NFB  Became first commissioner of the board o James Freer (first Canadian film maker) · Made films to promote immigration, toured Europe to try to get the British to come farm in Manitoba  Productions o Evangelene (1913)- Location: in Canada  First Canadian feature film  Financially successful in both US and Canada  Based on poem “Evangelene  Made by Canadian Bioscope Company, Halifax  Production- summer-long and cost $30, 0000  75 mins long  Canadian and US commercial success  What happened to this success?--> we now experience box office failure o Not a shortage of talent o Lumiere (1897) · Niagara Falls, shot in one of the first Canadian film · Landmarks represent Canada o Porky‟s (set in the states)  Super trashy movie  Cheap to produce  Wide appeal o Resident Evil: Afterlife 3D (set in the states)  International highest grossing Canadian film o Passchendaele  $20 million budget  Alberta government supplied about half of the budget  Grosses approx. $4.5 million at box office in Canada  Total box office revenue for English language Canadian films is 2008 was $9 million o Meatballs  shot cheaply in Ontario  no reference of it being Canadian  made tons of money o Goin‟ Down the Road 2 characters coming form NS, leave Halifax to Toronto, end things badly · 2 regular guys · Trailer park boys would not exist without this film · The Lowlife, underdog character · Realist tradition of Canadian cinema (documentaries), fiction films take on the same feel o Anne Wheeler – Bye Bye Blues · Movies about the Parries, and about living in them - Canada is energy, the city…so there are many different views - We are a heterogeneous state, we don‟t have a common experience  Early Film Boards o Ontario Motion Picture Bureau (1917)  Canadian‟s were pioneers in film making  first government funded film organization in the world  mission “carry out educational work for farmers, school children, factory workers, and other classes.” o Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau (1918)  Making films that are good for you rather than good to watch o National Film Board (1939)  Propaganda films  o Primarily propaganda films during war period  Produced primarily o Documentaries o Animation o Experimental film · Norman McLaren – Synchrony- played with light and sound o Blue background with sounds etc. · Joyce Nelson o The colonized Eye: Rethinking the Grierson Legend that we depend on the US to provide entertaining cinema Promotion and policy  Agencies o NFA- National Film Act (1950)  Report authored by independent producer Gordon Sheppard  NFB to regionalize English language production activities  Vancouver, Toronto, and the Prairies and Maritimes  Teach filmmaking, recruit young filmmakers, o Canadian New Media Fund  Replaces multimedia fund in 2001  Now a budget of $14 million per year o Canadian Media Fund (2009 – 2011)  announced on the set of “Flashpoint”  merging of Canadian Television Fund and the Canada New Media Fund  Feds commit $134.7 (million – top up 20.4) Distributors $150 (million) o 1968: Canadian Film Development Corporation  Commenced with a $10 million budget (not large)  Became Telefilm Canada in 1984 o Teleflim Canada  1993-94 $21 million but funded 26 film projects, still not much money per film  provide loans or grants to filmmakers, but nowhere near enough money to fund a whole project  Telefilm also administers the funding programs of the Canadian Media Fund Trends  Cultural Nationalism-(lesser)Sense of citizenship which rests upon idea of common culture  Have to promote a culture – we are not American, preserve Canadian national identity  Neoliberalism-(more dominant) becomes new dominant logic behind Canadian identity  Let the market decide – free market logic  Profitability Less than 5% of movies seen by Canadians are actually Canadian · Canadians spent 940 billion on movie tickets, less than 5% of that went to Canadian films · Its very hard to see a Canadian film, movie theatres have contracts · Distributers decided on what get showed in Canadian theatres · You have to go to an indie Cinema to see Canadian film · About half a dozen Canadian films screened per year in theaters · Ensures Canadian film cannot compete The difference between Anglo and Franco Canadians · 1997 – Les Boys, Quebec, outsold titanic in Quebec · 1998 – Titanic, James Cameron, dominated box offices everywhere except Quebec · Bon Cop, Bad Cop, won 2 of 10 of its genie nominations o Grossed $12.5 million nationally o Only 1.3 million came from outside of Quebec · Quebec strongly supports their indie films · Before 2006, market share for Canadian films was 1.4% and is now 3.6% o In Quebec it is 20% · Star system in Quebec Canadian film industry  Challenges o Distribution-closed o Production-more equally expensive and less returned at the box office o Economies of scale- try to get everything for cheaper (robins hat example) Responses to Box Office failure · Canadians should produce films that will have broad international and commercial appeal · Success should not be measured in dollars and should instead focus upon producing films that are of the best quality possible The Massey Commission 1949-1951 Underwriter, Broadcaster, Radiator- provide grants loans and subsidies · The government should be responsible for subsidizes the cultural media industry - We needed cinema more than tv because it united us - shared common culture, bonded over Canadian cinema (united people) - very pro-Canadian, wanted to make things very Canadian without American influence ADVERTISING -advertising is a part of economy -is a product and industry  History o People from 19 thcentury already talked about it being an invasive medium o First print ad- William Caxton- it promoted his books (march 15 slides)  Traditional Approches (types) o Advertising agencies o Media outlets o Placing ads o Pitching  Advertising Agencies o 500 top agencies employ approx 120,000 people worldwide (text) o Creative positions- ad copy o Client liaison – people who work with client o Media buying – responsible for buying space in different outlets o Market Research – people who do the grunt work like telemarketing for example o -compensation 15% commission on what client spends on advertising o -overtime advertising became more competitive  Media Outlets o Offer „in house‟ services directly linked to their sales departments o Have ppl who work for company put ad together but then can only play on their network  Placing Ads (who is your audience) o Newspapers o Magazines o Radio o Television o WWW based  Pitching o Branding – many people point to pears‟ soap in late 1800‟s, came out with process of selling soap o Lowest common denominator o Market Segments- positioning o Redundancy Techniques Monroe‟s Motivated Sequence: Capture attention Need- make them feel they need it Satisfaction- offer solution Visualization- outcome of solution Action – tell audience what they can do to solve this problem Branding  Pears‟ Soap- innovator for marketing themselves  Brand Names  Brand Image- idea that there is a total image that goes with your product- David Ogilvy in 1950‟s LCD Appeals (lowest common denominator)  Mass marketing of goods- reaches the most amount of people  Unique selling position or USP (used to differentiate the product)  Rosser Reeves 1960  Famous example of this (USP)- certes breath mints – unique because it had special ingredient which was redsin (vegetable oil) Leo Burnett USP should be real Maytag repair man – dependable quality product Market Segments Positioning- Jack Trout Virginia Slims- idea was that you tapped into feminist movements by smoking cigarettes Redundancy Techniques  Barrages- upcoming movie – lots of ads  Bunching- seasonal type of advertising, bunch
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