What is Communication Studies?
Communication studies is...
-a broad discipline
- focuses on the different areas of language, media, and culture.
Origins of Communication
-Raymond Williams states that communications if the notion of transmission as a one-way process
-The idea of a one way process relates to ideas of manipulative communication(s) including television,
radio, and film. Ex. The propaganda systems of the Nazis in Germany or in the Soviet Union in the 1930s
Communication Studies: An Overview
-Communication: communication as the process of sending a message from one person to another
-One of the most enduring models of communication:
-Lasswell Model formulated in 1948:
who (a sender. Ex. Professor)
says what (a channel (or mode) Ex. Speech, whiteboard, website)
in which channel (a meaningful message. Ex. Lecture)
to whom (a receiver. Ex. Students)
with what effect? (usually an effect or response. Ex. Taking notes, listening, talking)
Six Basic Forms of Communication:
-Non-verbal-we read the cues that we get from other people. Ex. Hand gestures
-Graphical-The symbolic and pictorial modes of graphics work. How images are put together and the
ways in which they work to communicate particular messages
-Numerical-understanding the ways in which numerical terms are applied.
-Mass-understanding the ways in which new technologies. Ex. How the printing press has established
many things such as the internet.
Five Uses for Communication:
-Information gathering, storage, retrieval, and dissemination
-Persuasion, propaganda, and publicity
What is Mass Communication?
- the centralized production and dissemination of mass information and entertainment.
-decentralized production and wide accessibility of information and entertainment, primarily by means
of public access to the Internet
-Exchange of information
Economic Foundation -To meet expenses the mass media must sell their product in two ways:
Derive income from selling a product directly to mass audiences. Ex. Movie industry.
Derive income from advertisers that place advertisements for mass audiences. Ex.
-Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC)-Canadas national public television network. Began
broadcasting in 1952
-Demassification-Media focus on narrowed audience segments
-Alternative Media-emerging, narrowly focused advertising vehicles. Ex. Sponsored websites, direct mail
Media Ownership Consolidation
-Conglomeration-combining of companies into larger companies
-Convergence-Early 21 century model of media cross-ownership. Converged companies typically own
print, broadcast, and internet holdings
Convergence in Canada
-CTVglobemedia. Owns CTV, The Globe and Mail, The Comedy Network
-CanWest Global. Owns Global, the National Post
Dubious Effects of Conglomeration
-They are trying to control the entire media through conglomeration.
-Quality- A newspapers story used to do through several hands, now it does not.
-Cross-Promotion-NBC ties taster trailers to its universal movies before launching TV shows
-Sameness-Recorded artists are encouraging artists to imitate what is already popular
-Corporate Instability- Profit-driven corporate parents are quick to sell subsidiaries that fall short of
profit expectations even for a short term or just to raise cash.
-This forces their employees to have sudden career jitters and look for jobs elsewhere.
Positive Effects of Conglomeration
-Public Media-financed by citizens and government money to further the public good, like CBC in Canada
-Organizational Media-aimed at serving nongovernmental bodies, such as professional groups, tribes,
religions, and corporations
-Individualized Media-media customized to an individuals needs and interests
-Political media-used by political parties
-Foreign Branches-Readers Digest broadcasts their magazine all over the world and in a variety of
-Acquisitions-Media companies began buying other media corporations
-Mergers-Some media companies have merged
-Alliances-Most media companies rely on other companies for foreign distribution of their content -Content-Distribution Model-Orbiting satellite companies beam signals directly to consumers
-Latter-Day Imperialism-Cultural imperialism-one cultures dominance of another
-With the release of Baywatch, Indians started to dress like the Americans they saw on it.
-The Canadian Experience with Cultural Intrusion- CRTC
-Transnational Cultural Enrichment-European and American culture has been enriched, not corrupted
Global Media Players
-News Agencies-Hundreds of agencies cover news around the world and sell their accounts to
subscribing media organizations.
Video News Services-The major news networks CBS, CNN, CTV, and CBC, prefer to cover foreign stories
with their own crews, but also subscribe to global video services for stories and pictures that they miss.
-Syndicates-Provide low-cost, high quality content to many news outlets
View 1: It is a Process
Figure 1: Linear Model
Sender(s) message Medium message Receiver(s)
who says what channel to who effect
-Channel- how the message is sent.
View 2: It is Culture
-Many theorists do not like the linear model:
Lacks human agency
It ignores power
Overlooks cultural and social differences
What is the Role of Communications?
-Inform to inform people
-Persuade to persuade people.
-Socialize To mould people in particular ways
-Individual Attainment setting yourself some goals
What is MASS Communication?
-An audience that doesnt see each other. Watching TV at home, and not being able to see the other
people watching it. Dont have a sense of being apart of an audience.
What are some of the Distinctions of the Canadian Media?
a) Public media (CBC)
b) Many cultural outlets festivals, concerts
c) Government control and regulation (CRTC)
d) Media funded to promote national identity and economy certain amount of money goes towards
media so that we have Canadian content for the Canadian economy and culture