CS202 Readings (2nd Half - Final Exam).docx

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Communication Studies
Judith Nicholson

CS202 Readings  People think they learn about someone through seeing their face – a person’s background, character, personality, talents and likely future behaviour  Physically attractive people evaluations include success, personality, popularity, social ability, sexuality, persuasiveness and happiness  Less attractive students are blamed more than attractive students for misbehaviors and teachers think that attractive students will be more successful  Women are more likely than men to post pictures on dating websites to increase their physical attractiveness  People deemed unattractive also post descriptions to enhance their weak parts of the body  When less attractive women are with high attractive woman it increases the likeliness of dating  Men with hot wives were seen more attractive and to make more money  Adolescents want attractive partners  Men have different perceptions for sexual encounters and long term relationships and women like the same men for sexual encounters and longer term relationships  Men like women who enjoy sexual encounters and women do not enjoy men who favor sexual encounters  Women are accurate at picking out men that would like to have children  Attractive men and women were seen to have better sales skills than those who weren’t  Attractive students have better grades, SAT scores and communication skills  Attractive people are less likely to be seen as guilty  Attractiveness is only one factor that may contribute to antisocial behaviour  Unattractive people are not doomed- surgery and makeup can change that  Some asymmetry is desired because the face may not look real  Thick eyebrows = more sterner  Thick lips = warmth  Thin lips = tense and suspicious  People are actually not good at guessing health and occupation by a face  People with baby faces were seen as more naïve and honest  Baby face soldiers are not expected to be brave  Mesomorph (bony, muscular, athletic), endomorph (fat) ectomorph (tall thin, fragile)  People’s characteristics could be matched to their body size and type  Women with lower hip to waist ratio are seen as more fertile  Height is indicative of status, attractiveness, marriage and sex  Tall men are seen as more competent on the job  Scent is something that people are also concerned about – people buy products that have a so-called natural scent  People can identify the smells of another person  Women expressed love for their current boyfriends the less able they were to identify an odor of a male friend (deflecting scents of males as mates)  When strippers are ovulating they earn more tips (except those using BC)  Hair is a major concern in today’s society – the length of males hair can be seen as deviant, hair in unwanted places for women is gross Clothes and other artifacts  Clothes are indicative of a person’s personality  Women’s dissatisfaction of their body was related to how much they tried to camouflage their body  If people dressed professionally jay walked, people followed  Women closer to ovulating choose more sexy clothes  Teams that wore black were more likely to show aggression  The way people dress can offer linguistic cues Advertising Messages  One of the major concerns is how males and females are depicted in the media (form & function)  Tend to show more of men’s faces and more of women’s bodies  More negative behaviours are directed at black versus white people on TV  Ads make us feel inadequate  Ads included face to face interactions Effects of gesture and posture  People can identify an angry posture quicker than they can identify a happy posture in a crowd  Culture affects posture  Speech-independent gestures are a direct verbal translation or dictionary definition usually consisting in a word or two  By 4 years old, children can identify these gestures very well  Speech independent gestures can be used to finish a sentence “I think he’s… (Crazy)”  (1) Interpersonal control (2) Announcement of one’s current state or condition, (3) an evaluative response to the actions or appearance of another  Speech related gestures – directly tied to or accompany speech  4 common types of speech related gestures o Gestures related to the speakers referent (example, pointing or drawing hour glass figure to represent body type) o Gestures indicating the speakers relationship to the referent (shaking hand to say I don’t know, could go either way) o Gestures that act as a visual punctuation for the speaker’s discourse (as you said earlier, moving the hand in a quarter circle inwards) o Gestures that assist in the regulation and organization of the spoken dialogue between two interactants  Turn gestures – you go ahead and talk  Speakers that are discussing a complex topic may use more gestures to explain the topic better  Speaker fluency is directly related to the use of gestures – limiting gestures limits the fluency of speech Communicating Intimacy  Men’s romantic interest in women is more detectable than women’s romantic interest in men  Women liked men that gazed, showed openness body movements, and displayed their status  Approach – people come together in same area  Acknowledge – Turn towards the other as an invitation to start walking  Interaction – Intensity of gaze, more touch  Sexual arousal – kissing  Resolution – intercourse  Women tend to dress more attractive when ovulating  Quasi-courtship behaviours – the overall message is that one of affiliation, it could be used to build rapport and also to play  Courtship readiness – behaviours categorized by high muscle tone  Preening behaviour – stroking hair, putting on makeup, glancing in mirror, adjusting coats  Positional cues – reflected in seating arrangements  Actions of appeal or invitation – flirtatious glances, gaze holding, rolling of the pelvis  The stages of intimacy do not need to be present in established relationship  Discrepancy arousal theory – we all have expectations about others peoples behaviour and increases/decreases in involvement of one person will lead to arousal or cognitive activation  Expectancy-violations theory – we all develop expectations about appropriate proximity in conversations  Interaction adaption theory – our expectations are deemed absolutely necessary like being close enough to hear someone  Interaction position – needed or preferred  We offset behaviour when it is a major violation of our expected behaviour of the other person Cultural messages  High contact versus low contact cultures o High contact touch frequently o High: south America, southern Europe, middle east o Low: Asia and northern Europe o Culture and race plays a role within these areas i.e. blacks may touch more than whites within America  Cultures that value individualism vs. collectivism o Individualism – stresses personal rights, responsibilities, Achievements, privacy, self-expression o This would include areas defined for privacy o Collectivism tends to emphasize things that put values on groups memberships o Venezuela, japan, Pakistan, Peru, brazil, Kenya  High context versus low context o Low context cultures rely on verbal messages o High context relys on indirect messages Despite disagreeing cultures, there are similarities in SCADFSH emotions, levels of beauty The coordination of Gesture, posture and speech  Phonemic clause – smallest unit of spoken language  This clause is usually tied to a gesture  Kinesics markers – mark a specific oral language behaviour  The gaze can sometimes act as the gesture pointer  Manual babbling in babies can be seen as a precursor to learning until they begin to pair words with gestures  Chameleon effect – people tend to match the mannerisms, facial expressions and postures of others  Matching is when you mirror the behaviours of others  We want to be more alike others, therefore we mimic them moer  Motor mimicry is a non behavioural phenomena (i.e. someone stubs their toe, we wince our faces)  Meshing – ongoing occurrence of changes in movement and speech by each of two interactants  Gestures – they replace speech, add emphasis to our speech, maintain flow of communication  Self synchrony – synchrony between the larger and smaller units of speech and body, this is movements occurring at the same time or in the same sequence The effects of touch on human communication  People that are touched like people/environments better  Words can replace touch because earlier associations of touch have happened  In infants/toddlers, gender plays a big role in who is touched. Boys tend to only touch adult males whereas little girls will touch either males or females  Men are more likely to be touch avoiders than women  Morris’ 14
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