Theory/theorists nameTheory description
Interactionism Strand of media theory about the way we act in our relation to
others in specific social environments.
Self-presentation Presents the “front and back” argument.
No sense of place This theory of placelessness claims because of new media
Joshua Meyrowitz technologies, there are no physical boundaries. Because
anyone from any walk of life can see and hear the same
information, there is no sense of place.
Donald Horton Persona and para-social relations. Persona=the personalities of
and R. Richard performers that build intimate para-social relations with
Wohl audiences via the media of radio or television.
Para-social interaction refers to the apparent familiarity
between media personalities and audiences.
John B. Thompson Mediated quasi-interaction: the non-reciprocal social relations
between media producers/personalities and audiences,
predominately monological in character such that the mediated
words and actions of public figures reveal themselves to
constant scrutiny from “the public eye”.
Labelling theory Labels of deviants, makes them more deviant.
and moral panic. Moral panic= a situation in which an individual
Anhony Gidden’s Claims that everyday actions reproduce existing social
Structuration structures, inclueding those structures routinely enacted by
theory media that contribute to self-identity.
Waves of 1 wave: refers to earliest feminist movement who fought to be
Feminism: persons and for the right to vote
2 wave: came in 60s, equal rights, concerned with the
representation of women.
3 Wave: post feminist, since 90s. Reject rigid gender politics of
2 wave and see gender as less fixed and personally
empowering. Separates politics from personal.
Betty Freidan Pioneer of second wave. Discusses “happy housewife” and how
women are expected to follow this ideal.
Judith Butler Believe sex is an outcome of nature, but gender is an outcome of
culture and society where mass media plays a major role. Talks
also of gender trouble, were someone blurs the lines between
male and female gender roles, but does not cross the line. Think
Radical Most militant form of feminism, coming from the 2 wave.
Feminism: Andrea Dworkin and Catherine Mackinnon fought porn
magazines, feeling they objectified women.
As well, Gaye Tuchman argued were symbolically annihilated
by TV portrayal of stereotyping. Laura Molvey and Claims that characters are bearers of a male gaze. See the world
the Male Gaze (in TV/film) through a male perspective making women feel
they need to be better. Why? 1. Scopophilia: pleasure in looking
and 2. Mirror theory by Jacques Lacan. When infants first see a
mirror, they see a superior self rather than themselves.
Tania Modleski: Modleski argues that soap operas are a mass produced fantasy
Mass-produced for women to fulfil desires in imagination that are often
fantasies for unobtainable in the real world. There are two types of women
women. in these shows: villainess and the perfect mother. No audience
surveys were taken.
Janice Radway: Incorporated audience analysis. Women reading/watching
Mass-produced romance to diversify the pace and character of their habitual
fantasies for existence. Escape reading makes women happy seeing a
women. heroines needs met, but makes them hopeful for our own
Angela McRobbie Looked at teen girls magazines. She found that they create the
ideology of teen femineity and the perfect housewives through
4 codes: 1. Code of romance (typical story), 2. Code of personal/
domestic life (look at readers problems and make them feel
individualized and uncommon to other readers), 3. Code of
fashion and beauty (emphasis on this, rather than personality)
and 4. Code of pop music (pin-up boys).
I. Ang Looked at the pleasure in watching Dallas. Thinks th