Study Guides (238,294)
Canada (115,060)
CS235 (15)


10 Pages
Unlock Document

Wilfrid Laurier University
Communication Studies
Andrew Herman

CS 235 MIDTERM REVIEW Theory, Methods and Methodologies 2 basic logics of research inquiry: 1. Naturalism:  Replicate natural sciences  Scientific method  Karl Popper: “Social sciences should be modeled after or organized the same as the natural sciences 2. Interpretivism:  You can’t do that  Qualitative research  Interpretivist’ is looking for meanings and motives behind people's actions like behaviour or interaction with others  Social sciences cannot be modeled on the natural sciences  Need to consider meaning making by the people who make the meaning  We need to gout and find out why people are doing certain things Both are compromised with 3 logics of knowing: 1. Epistemology:  HOW WE KNOW  How we perceive the world  The logical practice of organizing the process of coming to knowledge  How we know or understand the world is a function of where we are located or place from which we come to knowledge 2. Ontology:  Study of nature being  WHAT WE KNOW  WIKI: the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations  Questions of ontology entail questions about the nature of existence  Organizing principle by which we understand “what is”  The logical production of WHAT WE KNOW to exist 3. Methodology:  How we go about researching a phenomena 1  Think of “METHOD”  The process of “HOW WE KNOW” produces a trustworthy or valid what we know  WIKI: A methodology is usually a guideline system for solving a problem, with specific components such as phases, tasks, methods, techniques and tools  Entails the logic by which we organize our research and writing  By linking the practices of epistemology and ontology  So that the process of “how we know” produces a trustworthy or “valid” “what we know” Induction:  Moves UP from empirical observation to explanation of the observed  Up reasoning  From specific case to general theory  Most often a characteristic of the interpretivist logic of research and qualitative research methods Deduction  Moves DOWN from explanation to observation  Down reasoning  From general theory to specific cases  Most often associated with the naturalist logic of research and quantitative methods Quantitative:  Systematic empirical investigation of social phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques  Examples: survey research, Charles Booth, sampling, variables Qualitative:  Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior  Example: observing behavior of a specific individual Empiricism:  Theory of knowledge that asserts that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience  Emphasizes the role of experience and evidence  Knowledge and scientific theories derive from observation (inductive research) Rationalism:  Any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification 2  A method or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive  Must have theories, propositions, and hypotheses in order before you do research  Knowledge is the product of the mind organizing our experience of the world (deductive research) Transcendentalism:  A philosophy that asserts the primacy of the spiritual and transcendental over the material and empirical Positivism:  A philosophy of science based on the view that information derived from sensory experience, logical and mathematical treatments is the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge Constructionism:  An epistemological perspective in philosophy about the nature of scientific knowledge  Constructivists maintain that scientific knowledge is constructed by scientists and not discovered from the world  Constructivists argue that the concepts of science are mental constructs proposed in order to explain sensory experience Hypothetico-deductive Model  Phenomena: something catches our eye  Observations: generation of ideas, narrow our research  Testable Hypothesis: statement to be tested: “Power makes people steal”  Systematic Observation: data collection to allow hypothesis to be tested  Data Analysis: check for sufficient data, representative sample, and what info. Include or discard  Testing Hypothesis: hypothesis is falsified or hypothesis is confirmed Durkheim and Suicide  Emile Durkheim  1858-1917  Naturalist and rationalist  Researched suicide  Phenomenon: suicide rate is higher in Protestant countries than Catholic countries  Observations: social solidarity. Shift from community to society changes the dynamics of people. This causes Anomie – people lose their minds, they don’t know who they are, they are ethically adrift. Suicide is the result of diminishment of social solidarity. If you are alone you are more likely to commit suicide 3  Develops hypothesis: lack of solidarity among Protestants results in a higher suicide rate. Catholicism privileges the collective  Gathers statistics about mortality rates in Europe Gershon - Media Ideology:  A set of beliefs about communicative technologies with which users and designers explain perceived media structure and meaning" (Gershon 3)  At first glance this definition can be hard to decipher, but once it is understood is actually a simple concept.  These are a set of beliefs that each person creates on their own, which shape the way in which they think about and use technology and media  They are shaped by the individual's use of media and interaction with others through them Remediation:  The ways that people interlink media, suggesting that people define every technology in terms of the other communicative technologies available to them  Example: New York Times printed and website versions are very similar looking. The website designers made the website look like this due to remediation. Users are accustomed to the newspaper format of the Times, and enjoy seeing the familiar format on the website. The makers of the website wanted to maintain the connection between the printed and digital versions of the news Idioms of Practice:  People figure out together how to use different media and often agree on the appropriate social uses of technology by asking advice and sharing stories with each other  For example: people probably have different idioms of practice for texting their parents versus texting their best friends, because these two groups (usually) use technology differently. Parents might not understand inside jokes or a
More Less

Related notes for CS235

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.