Final Exam Review.docx

64 Pages

Communication Studies
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Matthew Flisfeder

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Chapter 7 Survey Research Survey Research ClaimsClaim is the central assertion or premise on which a research analysis is basedSurvey research claims are most frequently framed as research questions or hypothesisResearch questionsoask how a concept can be classified or what relationship exists between variablesHypothesisoMake specific predictions about relationships among variablesVariablesoA measurable constructoBy measurable it means that the elements of a variable can be assigned numerical values according to their magnitudes categorizations or scoresoEx sex is a variable with two categories male and femaleThere are two types of claims in survey researchoDescriptive claimsDefine the characteristics of a population based on samples drawn from itoExplanatory claimsInclude associative claims which predict phenomena that occurs togetherInclude causal claims which predict the influence of one phenomenon on anotherDescriptive claimsDescriptive claims in survey research are posted as research questionsUsed to identify certain characteristics of the individuals or social group under studyDemographicsoItems that provide telling background information such as age sex education or socioeconomic class about each participant In some cases descriptive claims are used in survey research to map out a conceptual territoryoExplore a new concept to find out what types of opinions attitudes feelings or behaviours people identify with a particular communication or cultural variableExplanatory claimsCan be posed as research questions or hypothesesUsed to explore the relationship between two or more variablesUses associative claims or casual claimsAssociative claimsoTested by survey data predict that two or more concepts or variables are related to each other or that changes in one variable are accompanied by changes in the otheroThis tendency is also known as covarianceoPurely associative claims do not satisfy that conditions required for a casual claimoEX you can test that people watch less television due to internet and claim that the two variables are related but that wont provide you a causal explanationoExpress contingency relationships or correlationsCorrelationsrefers to changes in variables that occur together in timePositive correlation variables change togetherNegative correlation variable change in opposite directionsoare generally descriptive or explanatorycausal claimsoshow that a change in one variable precedes and influences a change in the second variable and that the change is not likely to be explained by the influence of any other variableoidependent variable variable that prompts changeodependent variable variable that is changedSurveysdo not involve manipulation or controlled change in one of the variables or concepts studiedsurvey takes the world as it comes without trying to alter itcould be seen as a disadvantage oyou lack control over all variables being measuredcould be seen as an advantageothe data collected from surveys permit you to test more complex sets of causal relationships as they exist in their natural settingsNetwork Analysisis both a research method and a theoretical frameworkan area of research that tests complex patterns of casuality network refers to all the component parts of a communication system within an organizationa researcher will describe and explain a network through an analysis of the relationships among its members JR Lincoln says analysis focuses upon social relationships and in the patterns of ties that relate them to one anotherNetwork studied have claims that are descriptive or explanatory Survey research dataEntails a lengthy process of preparationThese steps should be conducted before you collect data analyze it or interpret resultso1 articulate your claimso2 identify data sources and settingso3 select a general survey designo4 select a sampling strategy o5 select a collection format using either questionnaires or interviewso6 construct a research instrument either questionnaires or interview guideo7 develop collection procedures o8 pilot the collection procedures and research intrumentso9 access the validity and reliability of the procedure and instrument o10 access the generalizability of the sampled data Sources for data collectionoSurveys usually take form of questionnairesoYou can ask participations to supply data about themselves which is called selfreport data or to supply data about other individuals or groups which is called otherreportdataoResearchers use surveys to learn about the characteristics of individuals or groups and investigate how those characteristics are related to specific issuesoThese characteristics could be demographic nature such as sex or birthplace or could be things such as beliefs opinions ectSettings for data collectionoData collected from surveys can be obtained either in labatory or field setting oLaboratories Are the environments portrayed in popular cultureAre usually offices conference rooms or class rooms in the researchers university
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