CS 315 Notes Week 1-6 Midterm Review

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Communication Studies
Martin Dowding

CS 315 Notes  History of Technology  Commodities: something with monetary and exchange value Film: A personal view by Jason Burke - Used to use rhymes to keep facts from business to bee-keeping - Paper solved many problems - Printing press was revolutionary - Bye to clerical error - 1490 printers were widely used - Printing gave Europe national frontier Main ideas: - Printing press: mass production - Relies on standardization - Things didn’t have to be memorized Next week: - Literacy and orality: Walter Ong - Ideology: what we all believe - Hegemony: is the predominant ideology - Interpellation: caught up in hegemony Lecture #3 Ong: “Print, space and closure” - Residual orality in early print culture consciousness and print: Ong’s main issue - Print is not only a question of filling space on paper - Subtlety of print on consciousness - McLuhan, Gutenberg Galaxy - Writing (by hand): letters don’t exist until execution - Printing (letterpress): words take on a new meaning as they are concrete design - Printing (more than writing): made abstract words material – the commodity effect - MS culture retained orality: “auditing” a word we use today for..? - Things had to be heard to be made possible - MS = manuscript - MS culture oral-aural: difficult to read (different hands, no reliable standard): - Difficult to recall - Reading aloud sotto voce to help memorize - Sotto voice: speaking quietly - Early printed texts were visually pleasant but didn’t follow our current idea of “textuality” but the meaning was in the text - CF. early MSS – non-standard aesthetic differences - Run-on words, no standardized spacing, spelling - “Locking” type into place puts word/world into different space - Literally different from MS writing - Spelling became standardized as people realized how many words fit into a line - Shakespeare spelt his name in 5 different ways - “That’s the way it is” - But print culture is essential to secondary orality - What is “secondary orality” and how does it differ from original “orality” - Secondary orality is the age of the radio, TV, etc… - Printing press: standardization led to rapid, silent reading (significance culture changes over MS culture behavior) - Medieval MSS riddled with abbreviations - Writing “re-constituted” orality: made orality visual and permanent - Recall: speech/orality is subject to evanescence -> something quickly fading away - Lists: begin with writing: recording - MS orality based culture relied on lists, but through “rhyming things off” spoke what was written - “Index locorum” = index of places - Indexes work in print culture but not in MSS? - Eg: ten MSS created ten different hands - Ong: a new intellectually abstract world was organizing or “shaping” up in print - MS – Manuscript - George Herbet -> title page - Private ejaculations -> coming out - Poem called ‘easter wings’ have to turn sideways to read - Tree poetry make a picture of what you were writing about without drawing a picture - Concrete poetry, like Herbert’s ‘Easter Wings’ are products of typography: printing - The disappearance of Iconography (until computers) was a result of typography as well - Dictionaries, to standardize spelling are a result of typography: printing - Printers could know exactly how long a printed piece would be $$$ - The printed text became… - Printing also freed the group from sitting in same place, listening to someone read to them (kindergarten) - Private/silent reading became possible but only for who could afford to read - With that came a new sense of ownership: words, books, time - Speaking of ownership. Moral economic - When copyright emerged printing became something different - Plural of medium is media - Ong points out that printing computer print even more of a commodity - Other technology, radio, TV, aural recording of all kinds led to what kind of orality? Who, for Ong, is listening to what an
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