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CP102 Final Exam Review

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Computer Science
Mark Petrick

CP102 Exam Details 11/27/2012 1:09:00 PM Exam:  Dec 18 – 12:00 (noon) – 2:00 pm  In the AC (Athletic Complex) Final Exam Review 11/27/2012 1:09:00 PM Need To Know:  Abbreviations  Definitions  Classifications  Processes  Facts/History  Compare & Contrast All questions come from the material in the text  Slide condense material selecting the highlights  In class we expand the material and define many of the terms – if you don’t know a term, look it up! Prof’s Recommendations  Look at the end of EERY chapter (1-13) o Copy out the word bank o Go through the slides o How does the word bank word apply to the section Topics  Chp 1 o Basic Knowledge  Chp 2 o Basic hardware such as NIC  Chp3 o Internet:a network of networks  Chp 5 o Operating ystems: Network OS  Chp 7 o Netwroknig Fundamentals  Chp 9 o Cybercrime  Cp 12 o More networking  Chp 13 o More internet Main Topics 1. Networking 2. Internet – a network of networks 3. Computers i. Software 1. Aplicarion software – word, excel, access, etc. – the stuff we use 2. System software ii. Hardware 1. Didn’t the bbook divide this into subsystems for us? 2. CPU, RAM, Storage devices, video, sound\  Little bits in between o Cybercrime/security  Networking hardware/software o ****etc***pic*** Word Banks 11/27/2012 1:09:00 PM Chapter 1  Affective computing  Augmented reality  Autonomy  Collaborative consumption  Computer literate  Creative surplus  Crisis mapping tools  Crowdsourcing  Data mining  Digital divide  IT  Mastery  Purpose  Social Networking  Hardware Review Computer Hardware CPU Subsystem  Control unit & arithmetic logic unit (ALU)  CPU usage o What percentage of the time is your CPU actually working/sitting idle  Cache memory o Little bits of memory to store temporary files instead of using RAM so that you can access it faster (closer to CPU)  Front side bus o Move info from one place to another  Moore’s law o Doubling of **?** every 8 months  Cache (L1 L2 L3) o Levels determined by closeness to CPU o The closer they are, the faster they are, the more expensive they are  Machine Cycle (Fetch/Execute Cycle) o Fetch o Decode o Execute o Store  Hyper threading o Starting another instruction before previous has finished (>1 instruction at a time) RAM  RAM – what it is o Programs are saved on the hard drive for long term storage ( slow access) o When you run them, they load into RAM (faster access)  RAM – Characteristics o Volatile o Temporary o Erased when turn computer off o Where programs that are currently in use are stored o Made up of memory modules  Physical memory  How much is actually on the memory modules (whether in use or not)  Total amount that your computer has o Kernel memory  Where the OS resides and runs Storage  Hard Drive o Non-volatile o Info is safe when computer is turned off o Access Time  Based on seek time & latency (rotational)  Measured in milliseconds  Data transfer rate  Solid state drive  Optical storage devices o CD/DVD/Blu-ray Burners, etc. Video & Audio  GPU  Graphic card have their own memory GDDR  Sends image info to monitor  Display as pixels made up of Red, Green, Blue values  Surround sound, etc.   Those are our 5 major subsections  More?  Motherboard o All these subsystems are connected to it  It also has ports like USB  Allows input devices like keyboard, mouse, to connect to it  Allows output devices like monitor, printer to connect to it  Special types of computers: o Mainframes:  Large computers to support hundreds of users o Super computers:  Specialized for calculations  Legacy Technology o Mouse, Floppy disks, old shit etc. Software Review 11/27/2012 1:09:00 PM Software  Software = a program o What does a program look like?  Our version? The CPU’s version?  What do programs do? o Take some input, mess with it, then give something back  Output o Often convert “data” to “information”  Programs o System development life cycle (SDLC)  The waterfall diagram (outdated)  1. Problem/opportunity ide  2***  3  4  5  6  Alternatively: Joint Application Development (JAD) (what is commonly used) o Program Development life cycle 1. Describe the problem 2. Make a plan 3. Coding – programming 4. Debugging 5. Finishing the project (testing, documentation)  But this still doesn’t tell me what a program is –does it? Maybe o Programming:  Translating a task into instructions a computer will understand o Algorithms:  *insert definition  Programs o Language of computers is binary (1s and 0s) o Only certain sequences of 1s and 0s make sense – the ones that make sense are machine instructions o Machine language  The alnuage (set) of instrctions for the CPU to run o Programs in 1 and 0s is difficult o So we made Assembly Lanuage  A more English interpretation of machine language  Then convert these assembly programs to machine language  We don’t really use assembly much – Java, C. o Complilations:  Taking a program and converting it into machine code o Errors:  Syntax errors, runtime errors, logical errors  ***define these errors^** o HTML/XHTML  More scriptuing than programming – uses tags  Specialized version of XML which allows you to create your own tags  This is the language out web browset understand – application software o Applcation Software  Productivity software (how and why do we use them)  Word  Spreadsheets  Cells, rows Collumns  It will autpmatically update with new value  Presentation software  Allows for multimedia, etc  Databases  Record, field, table, data, types, validation o Primary key – something that has unique values in the table o Foreign key – Field used as primary key in another table  Relational Databases – most commonly used  1-1, 1-many, many-many relationships  Centralization: store data in one place – convenient!  Normalization: reduce data redundancy – don’t save the same info repeatedly in different places – updating nightmare!  Query vs Sort  Warehouse – place to store large amounts  Datamart – place to pic up some data  Data Applications ***ALWAYS ON EXAM, KNOW THE DIFFEERNECE)
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