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Psych 102 - Midterm Review.docx

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Department
Computer Science
Course
CP102
Professor
Igor Ivkovic
Semester
Winter

Description
Psych 102, Midterm Review Chapter 7 notes Encoding – involves forming a memory code Storage – involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time Retrieval – involves recovering information from memory stores Attention – involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events. Selective attention is critical to everyday functioning Levels of processing theory – proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer- lasting memory codes Elaboration – linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding Dual-coding theory – holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead recall Self-referent – encoding involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant Sensory – preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second Short Term Memory – is a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds Rehearsal – the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information for up to about 20 seconds Chunk – is a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit Working memory – is a limited capacity storage system that temporarily maintains and stores information by providing an interface between perception, memory, and action Working memory capacity (WMC) – refers to one’s ability to hold and manipulate information in conscious attention Long-term Memory – is an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time Flashbulb memories – which are unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events Clustering – the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups Conceptual hierarchy – is a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items Schema – is an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event Semantic network – consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts Connectionist/parallel distributed processing models – assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon – temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it’s just out of reach Misinformation effect – occurs when participants’ recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing mis-leading post-event information Reality monitoring – refers to the process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources (one’s perceptions of actual events) or internal sources (one’s thoughts and imaginations) Source monitoring – involves making attributions about the origins of memories Source-monitoring error – occurs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source Destination memory – involves recalling to whom one has told what Forgetting curve – graphs retention and forgetting over time Retention – refers to the proportion of material retained (remembered) Recall measure of retention – requires subjects to reproduce information on their own without any cues Recognition – measure of retention requires subjects to select previously learned information from an array of options Relearning measure of retention – requires a subject to memorize information a second time to determine how much time or how many practice trials are saved by having learned it before Decay theory – proposes that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time Interference theory – proposes that people forget information because of competition from other material Retroactive interference – occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information Proactive interference – occurs when previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information Encoding specificity principle – states that the value of retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code Transfer-appropriate – processing occurs when the initial processing of information is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention Repression – refers to keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious Long-term potentiation (LTP) – is a long-lasting increase in neural excitability at synapses along a specific neural pathway Retrograde amnesia – involves the loss of memories for events that occurred prior to the onset amnesia Anterograde amnesia – involves the loss of memories for events that occur after the onset amnesia Consolidation – hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of information into durable memory codes stored in long-term memory Implicit memory – is apparent when retention is exhibited on a task that does not require intentional remembering Explicit memory – which involves intentional recollection of previous experiences Declarative memory systems – handles factual information Nondeclarative or procedural memory system – houses memory for actions, skills, operations and conditioned Episodic memory system – is made up of chronological, or temporally dated, recollections of personal experiences Semantic memory system – contains general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned Prospective memory – involves remembering to perform actions in the future Retrospective memory – involves remembering events from the past or previously learned information Mnemonic devices – methods used to increase the recall of information Overlearning – refers to continued rehearsal of material after you first appear to have mastered it Serial-position – effect occurs when subjects show better recall for i
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