Study Guides (238,408)
Canada (115,131)
Economics (379)
EC207 (12)

EC207 Final: Final cheat sheet

2 Pages
Unlock Document

Wilfrid Laurier University
Shadab Qaiser

Chapter 6: Process Design and Facility Layout -ntroProcess design: Determining the form and function of how goods or services are produced, i.e. the sequence of operations - Make or buy: (first step) Decide whether to make a part or product in-house or to buy it as a segment of production process from another company Job Shop - a process is used when a low quantity of high variety customized goods or services will be needed. - Process is intermittent, work shifts from one small job to the next, each somewhat different. - High flexibility of equipment and skilled workers are important - ex. process used by a custom spring maker (manufacturing), process used in the surgery department of a hospital that is able to perform a variety of procedures (service) Batch Process - used when a moderate quantity and variety of goods or services is desired. The equipment need not be as flexible as in a job shop, but process is still intermittent. - The skills level of workers doesn't need to be as high as in a job shop because there is less variety in the jobs - ex. process used by small bakeries that make bread, cakes, or cookies in batches Repetitive - Repetitive process: A type of process used when higher quantities of more standardized goods or services are needed - Skills of workers is low and only slight flexibility of equipment is needed - Production line: A sequence of machines/workstations that perform operations on a part/product. - Assembly line: A production line where parts are added to product sequentially Continuous Process 3. Assign the task with the largest positional weight (= sum of tasks time plus the - Used when a high volume of highly standardized output is required - time of all the following tasks) - Workers are low skilled/no equipment flexibility ex. process if gasoline, steel, paper, sugar etc. or utilities and the internet(services) Measures of effectiveness of the set of assignments are: 1. The percentage idle time of the line. This is sometimes referred to as the balance decay. Technology - Process technology included methods, procedures and equipment used to produce goods and provide services, such as robotics and automation of factory floor - Information technology (IT) is the science and use of computers and other electronics equipment to store, process and send information Automation - Numerically controlled (N/C) machines - Machines that perform operations by following mathematical processing instructions, best used in cases where part geometry is complex, with possibility of frequent changed in the design (higher skill levels needed with high initial cost - Robot - Machine costing of a mechanical arm, a power supply, and a controller. 2. The efficiency of the line - Flexible Manufacturing system (FMS) - A group of machining centres controlled by a computer, with automatic Designing Process (Functional) Layouts - material handling, robots or other automated equipment. They can produce a variety of similar products. - Main issue id the relative positioning of the departments involved Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) - a system for linking a broad range of manufacturing and other activities through an intreating computer system Minimizing Total Transportation Cost or Distance - Helpful to summarize the necessary data in from-to charts, Methodology for Production Process Design 1. Define the production Process (build business case - stage): - Determine how completed the input materials should be. These are make-or-buy decisions Heuristic - Set production process objectives: 1. Assign the pair of departments with the greatest interdepartmental work flow to locations whose - centres are closest to each other, keeping the future assignments in mind. Capacity, flexibility - Type of process (job shop, batch, repetitive, continuous) - Cost (fixed, variable), process quality capability - Technology/extent of automation, production start date - Determine the nature of process in general 2. Then pick the pair with second highest work flow and assign them to two available locations 2. Production process development (Development - stage) whose centres are the next two closest, keeping their relationship with those already assigned (from inputs to outputs - the sequence) - and future assignments in mind 2.1 Conceptualize the design 3. Continue until all departments have been assigned - Usually a process flaw diagram is used to show the operations and the movement of material between the operations Chapter 17: Project Management - Incremental Gant Chart - Hierarchical (Top-down) - - Evaluate each alternative process concept - visual aid for scheduling and control of the activities of a project (simple) - 2.2 Make an embodiment of the design indicates when activities are to occur, their planned duration, and when they are to occur - - Charts fail to reveal relationships among activities that can be crucial to effective project Choose one process concept and complete the design management. - Build a prototype process and test it. (Pilot plant) Pert/CPM Technique - Determine the resources (machines, equipment, labour) needed - PERT (program evaluation and review technique) and CPM (critical oath method) are two of the - Estimate the costs, quality, etc, and compare with objectives most widely used tools for scheduling and control of large-scale projects. By using PERT and - Refine the process and re-evaluate it CPM, managers are bale to obtain: - 2.3 Create a detailed design - Finalize the process specifications 1. A graphical display of project activities and their sequential relationship. - 2. An estimate of how long the project will take Determine the specific machines, equipment (capacities), and labour 3. An indication of which activities are most critical to timely project completion - Design the plant layout 4. An indication of how long any activity can be delayed without delaying the - Design the work centres project 3. Buy the machines and equipment, recruit workers, and start trial runs (Testing and Precedence Network validation - stage) - One of the main features of PERT/CPM is its use of a precedence network; to depict project Service Process Design activities and their sequential relationships by use - The service positioning can easily be changed by varying the choices and the degree of customization and of arrows and nodes. involvement of customers at any step of the service - Activity-on-arrow (AOA): Network in - Service Blueprinting: the process flow diagramming for services is called service blue-printing. It is beneficial to which arrows designate activities the service provider to distinguish operations seen by the customer and those hidden from customers. These are - Activity-on-nodes (AON): separated by the line of visibility on the service blueprint. Network in which nodes Types of Layout designate activities - - Layout is the location of departments, work centres, or equipment in the facility/factory/plant. A path: a sequence of - -roduct (line) Layout activities that leads from - Arrangement of production resources linearly according to the progressive steps by which a product is made the start node to the end node. - Work is divided into a series of standardized tasks, permitting specialization of both labour and equipment. - Critical path: The longest path from start Only one or a few very similar items involved to end; determined the expected project - -rocess (Functional) Layout duration - Arrangement of production resources according to similarity of function - Critical activities: Activities on the critical (longest) path Has a variety of production requirements. and requires frequent adjustments to equipment, causing - - discontinuous work flow (intermittent processing) Path slack time: Allowable slippage for a path; the difference between the length of the ex. hospitals, grocery stores, auto repair shop path and the length pf the - -ellular Layout critical (longest) path. Labour in which different machines are arranged in a cell that can process items that have similar processing - requirements Deterministic Activity Durations - a cell is a small version of a product layout. - Deterministic durations: - U-shaped line permits increased communication among workers on the line = teamwork Durations that are fairly certain Grouping of similar items is known as group technology and involves identifying items with similarities in either design or manufacturing characteristics, and grouping them into part families Solution Technique Cycle time (above) - ES = the earliest time the activity - The maximum time allowed at each workstation to complete its set of tasks on a unit can start - EF = the earliest time the activity Precedence network can fini
More Less

Related notes for EC207

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.