ES101 Final Review.docx

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Environmental Studies
Edmund Okoree

MODIFYING HABITATS AND SPECIES INTERACTIONS Ecological Succession: gradual change caused by environmental disturbance (natural/ human) Affects:  species  populations  ecological communities Primary: ecological community begins where living organisms were not previously Secondary: an existing community is disrupted, new type of community develops Stability and Resilience: living systems are stable but always changing as there are multiple stable states. Feedbacks (positive/negative) maintain new stability. Therefore, the goal of resilience rather than simple stability. Outcomes- new community is more resistant to change, although nature may not be in balance (thresholds, flips) Habitat: environment in which a particular organism lives Niche: role played by a species in ecosystem, or its “lifestyle” R- SELECTED K- SELECTED Small Size Large size and offspring Small Offspring Early Maturity Slow Maturity Low Survivorship Survival Minded Island Biogeography gives insight on species and land change: Factors:  immigration vs. extinction  migration  physical isolation SPECIES Types Native: naturally associated with ecosystem (frogs in swamps) Indicator: early warning to enviro change (gray jay from Alaska to NA) Keystone: crucial importance to ecosystem (beaver to Canadian water systems) Non Native: alien species with negative impact (zebra mussel to Great Lakes from Caspian) Interactions Competition: scarce resources. Responses are niches, distribution and territory defense (Galapagos island birds and their beaks) Symbiosis: mutual benefits for two systems (clownfish and sea anemone) Predation: predator, organism feeds directly on another living organism. Can increase bio-diversity (snake on mouse) Parasitism: one species feeds on part of another (fleas on dogs) BIOMES Biomes: broad categories of ecosystems with similar vegetation and wildlife Categories:  Desert: subtropics, low moisture  Grassland: temperate, low moisture, interiors +Tundra: polar region, low moisture and temperature  Forest: equator, high moisture, east coast  Mountain: high elevation, rapid temperature change, variable precipitation, plate boundaries DESERT GRASSLAND, TUNDRA  evaporation > precipitation  transition between desert and forest  Hottest temperature, driest climate  precipitation suitable for grass-  Temperate- fluctuation in temp, seasonal drought, large herbivore precipitation grazing, occasional fires  Extremes- day and night  temperate Adaptations  polar or tropical  small leaves Tropical Savanna  deep and shallow roots  warm temp  store biomass in seeds  double drought seasons  low growing  hoofed animals  wax on leaves  resource partitioning  water in leaves Temperate Grassland  large plains NA/ SA Plants  hair on leaves- reduce evaporation,  hot summer, cold winter reflect sunlight, less air circulation  sparse precip  photosynthesis- open stomata at night,  fertile soil fewer stomata Polar Animals  treeless  avoid heat- hibernate  extreme cold  dissipate heat- evaporate from mouth,  6-8 week growth large ears, dark colours  permafrost- frozen layer of soil  retain water- burrowing, food sources,  animals- burrow, fur solid wastes  decomposition slow  acquire water- plants, recycle, retain,  poor soil moisture from air Human Impacts  poor resilience FORESTS  slow plant growth  med/high precip  low species diversity  levels of trees  slow nutrient cycles  trees, low vege  lack of water  deciduous Tropical  equatorial  moisture, daily rainfall Boreal/ Taiga  shallow roots  2% land surface  evergreen coniferous, cone bearing  rapid decomposotion  northern hemisphere Temperate  short summer
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