Final Exam ES101 Textbook Notes.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Environmental Studies
Edmund Okoree

Final Exam ES101 Textbook Notes Chapter 5: Evolution and Biodiversity  Biological evolution took about 3.7 billion years and this is when cells developed  Theory of evolution – Charles Darwin  Microevolution – small genetic changes in a population  Macroevolution – long-term evolutionary changes in a population  Gene pool – a collection of genetic resources potentially available to the next generation  Genes that have two or more molecular forms are called alleles  Mutations – random changes in DNA molecules in a cell that can be inherited  Mutagens are mutations caused by external agents such as radioactivity or chemicals  Fundamental niche – full potential range of physical, chemical, and biological conditions and resources a species could use  Generalists species are species that can have broad niches and capable of surviving in many areas  Specialist species have narrow niches and few habitats and few food choices, making them more prone to extinction  Allopatric speciation occurs in two phases, the first being geographic isolation which occurs when groups of the same population are physically isolated for long periods  Reproductive isolation occurs when the populations join again but are unable to sexually reproduce  Sympatric speciation occurs when subtle genetic or behavioral changes make it impossible for a species to reproduce with another part of the population  GMO’s are genetically modified organisms or transgenic organisms  Humans have become powerful due to brain and thumb power  Background extinction, mass depletion and mass extinction are the forms of extinction from weakest to greatest Chapter 6: Biomes  Biomes – the main types of natural vegetation in different undisturbed land areas  Biomes formed by differences in climate, average temperature, and precipitation due to air and water circulation  The world is divided into 12 biomes – arctic tundra, boreal forest, temperate deciduous forest, etc  Canada has eight biomes – polar grassland, polar coniferous or boreal forest, aspen parkland, northern hardwood, temperate deciduous forest, temperate rain forest, montane forest, temperate grassland  Deserts have more evaporation than precipitation  Deserts cover about 30% of the earth’s surface  Polar grasslands are cold and dry and have permafrost  Chaparral areas are temperate shrublands with a great climate but are subject to fires, followed by mudslides and flooding  Forests experience natural capital degradation mostly through clearing forests for timber or agriculture  Mountains experience natural capital degradation through timber, or mineral extraction, tourism, and air pollution from nearby industrial centers Chapter 8: Community Ecology  To describe a biological community, ecologists use three characteristics  Physical appearance – the relative sizes, stratification and distribution of its population and species  Species diversity – a combination of its number of different species (species richness) and the abundance of individuals within each of its species (species evenness)  Niche structure –the number of ecological niches, how they resemble or differ from each other and how species interact with one another  Species diversity can be affected by latitude, pollution, habitat diversity, NPP, habitat disturbance and time  In the 1960’s, Robert MacArthur and Edward Wilson began studying communities on islands  They proposed the species equilibrium model or the theory of island biogeography  It is a balance between the rate at which new species immigrate to the island and the rate which existing species become extinct  Smaller islands have a smaller number of species because they have less immigration and more extinction due to fewer resources  Native species, exotic species, invasive species a
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