PS101 midterm notes

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Department
Environmental Studies
Course
ES101
Professor
Robert Mc Leman
Semester
Fall

Description
ChapterOneNotesSeptember16th2013TheEvolutionofPsychologyPhilosophyPhysiologyandPsychologyPsychologycomesfromtwoGreekwordspsychemeaningthesoulandlogosmeaningthestudyofasubjectAsoldasthehumanraceAristotlestheoryofmemoryisstillfoundationaltomanytheoriestodayDescartes15961650arguedfordualismofmindandbodythatthemindandbodywereseparateandfundamentallydifferentwiththemindbeingimmaterialandtheprovinceofGodAlsobelievedprocessessuchandfunctionssuchasmemoryperceptiondreamingandemotionswerepropertiesofthebodyandthusopentobeingunderstoodinnaturalistictermsAsideasinphilosophyconcerningthenatureofmindandbehaviourcontinuedtodevelopotherdisciplinessuchasthestudyofexperimentalphysiologyandmedicinelefttheirownmarksonthelaterdevelopmentofpsychologyWilliamHarveyHisempiricaldemonstrationin1682ofthefactthatbloodcirculationwasafunctionoftheoperationoftheheartphysiologistsandphysicianssuchasRobertWhyteFranzGallPaulBrocaandJohannesMillershowedthatimportantinsightscouldbegainedintotheworkingsofthebodyandbrainthroughtheapplicationofsystematicempiricalmethodsHermannvonHelmholtzbeganoneofthefirstexperimentalexaminationsofhumanreactiontimeandarguedfortheseparationofsensationandperceptionastopicsofstudyANewScienceisBornTheContributionsofWundtandHallWilhelmWundtAGermanprofessorwhomountedacampaigntomakepsychologyanindependentdisciplineratherthanastepchildofphilosophyorphysiologyIn1879hesucceededinestablishingthefirstformallaboratoryforresearchinpsychologyattheUniversityofLeipzigHistorianshaveChristened1879aspsychologysdateofbirthIn1881heestablishedthefirstjournaldevotedtopublishingresearchonpsychologyAccordingtoWundtpsychologysprimaryfocuswasconsciousnesstheawarenessofimmediateexperienceThisishowpsychologybecamethestudyofconsciousexperienceKeptpsychologyfocussedonthemindandmentalprocessesanddemandedthatthemethodsofpsychologistsusedtoinvestigatethemindbeasscientificasthoseofchemistsandphysicistsBetween1883and1893about24newlaboratoriessprangupintheUSAandCanadamanyofthemwerestartedbyWundtsstudentsGStanleyHallwhostudiedbrieflywithWundtwasanimportantcontributortotherapidgrowthofpsychologyintheUSAHeestablishedAmericasfirstresearchlaboratoryinpsychologyatJohnHopkinsUniversityin18834yearslaterhelaunchedAmericasfirstpsychologyjournalIn1892hewasthedrivingforcebehindtheestablishmentoftheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationAPAandwaselecteditsfirstpresidentTodaytheAPAistheworldslargestorganizationdevotedtotheadvancementofpyschologyTheBattleoftheSchoolsBeginsStructuralismandFunctionalismStructuralismemergedthroughtheleadershipofEdwardTitcheneranEnglishmanwhoimmigratedtotheUSin1892andtaughtatCornellUniversityStructuralismwasbasedonthenotionthatthetaskofpsychologyistoanalyseconsciousnessintoitsbasicelementsandinvestigatehowtheseelementsarerelatedStructuralistswantedtoidentifyandexaminethefundamentalcomponentsofconsciousexperiencesuchassensationsfeelingsandimagesMostoftheirworkconcernedsensationandperceptioninvisionhearingandtouch
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