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Wilfrid Laurier University
Environmental Studies
Rob Milne

Chapter 2 Yellowstone model: game reserves designed without consideration of local land use, without local consent, and primarily for the enjoyment of outsiders Convention on biological diversity: requires that signatory parties establish a system of parks and protected areas and promote appropriate development policies in and around these areas that will contribute to the conservation of biological diversity Wilderness area: wilderness protection National park: ecosystem protection and recreation National monument: conservation of specific natural features Habitat/species management area: conservation through management intervention Protected landscape/seascape: landscape or seascape conservation and recreation Managed resource protected area: sustainable use of natural ecosystems McNeely’s words: protected areas are on the front lines in the battle to conserve biodiversity, and since these areas are often selected and managed specifically to protect species and ecosystems of outstanding value from human degradation, they are also sites of highly contentious debates between local and national interest Reasons for this: 1. Protected areas do not always target sites of high biological diversity 2. New scientific information about the complexity and true extent of effective ecosystems has challenged the utility of strict protectionism, because entire ecosystems can never be protected 3. As the budget of postcolonial governments dwindled so did their ability to enforce protectionism policies 4. Increased sensitivity to human rights makes the old Yellowstone practice of relocation, repeated with the abandon across the globe throughout the twentieth century, political very unpopular 1970’s-1980’s: time of enormous ideological and political shifts with respect to the relationship of conservation to development sustainable development: development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs Caring for the Earth: to help improve the condition of the world’s people Conservation: the management of human use of organisms and ecosystems to ensure such use is sustainable Preservationist goals: besides sustainable use, conservation includes protection, maintenance. Rehabilitation, restoration and enhancement of populations and ecosystems Ecological sustainability: implies practices that do not irreversibly deplete resources or degrade the habitat Social or institutional sustainability: often used by rural development agencies to suggest that a protect will not fall apart after the explicit development activities have ended Economic sustainability: refers to a set of practices that will make money over a certain period, and not cause any major collapse or instability within the local economy Chapter Three Ecology: the study of natural systems in the scientific field Early foraging theory: which items should an optimal forager collect or ignore, and how long should a forager spend in different parts of a patchy landscape Population regulation: - Noise and disequilibrium make the diagnosis of human impacts is difficult - An equilibrial, density dependent system is likely to have tightly coupled interactions, where one species’ abundance is closely linked to that of it’s competitors, predators or prey, as envisioned by Golden Age ecologists - Rise of adaptive management - Dynamics of ecosystems, and in particular how tightly coupled their interacting elements a
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