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Final

ES101 Study Guide - Final Guide: Stoma, Herbivore, Amphiprioninae


Department
Environmental Studies
Course Code
ES101
Professor
Edmund Okoree
Study Guide
Final

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MODIFYING HABITATS AND SPECIES INTERACTIONS
Ecological Succession: gradual change caused by environmental disturbance (natural/ human)
Affects:
species
populations
ecological communities
Primary: ecological community begins where living organisms were not previously
Secondary: an existing community is disrupted, new type of community develops
Stability and Resilience: living systems are stable but always changing as there are multiple stable
states. Feedbacks (positive/negative) maintain new stability. Therefore, the goal of resilience rather
than simple stability.
Outcomes- new community is more resistant to change, although nature may not be in balance
(thresholds, flips)
Habitat: environment in which a particular organism lives
Niche: role played by a species in ecosystem, or its “lifestyle”
R- SELECTED
K- SELECTED
Small Size
Large size and offspring
Small Offspring
Early Maturity
Slow Maturity
Low Survivorship
Survival Minded
Island Biogeography gives insight on species and land change:
Factors:
immigration vs. extinction
migration
physical isolation
SPECIES
Types
Native: naturally associated with ecosystem (frogs in swamps)
Indicator: early warning to enviro change (gray jay from Alaska to NA)
Keystone: crucial importance to ecosystem (beaver to Canadian water systems)
Non Native: alien species with negative impact (zebra mussel to Great Lakes from Caspian)
Interactions
Competition: scarce resources. Responses are niches, distribution and territory defense (Galapagos
island birds and their beaks)
Symbiosis: mutual benefits for two systems (clownfish and sea anemone)
Predation: predator, organism feeds directly on another living organism. Can increase bio-diversity
(snake on mouse)
Parasitism: one species feeds on part of another (fleas on dogs)

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BIOMES
Biomes: broad categories of ecosystems with similar vegetation and wildlife
Categories:
Desert: subtropics, low moisture
Grassland: temperate, low moisture, interiors
+Tundra: polar region, low moisture and temperature
Forest: equator, high moisture, east coast
Mountain: high elevation, rapid temperature change, variable precipitation, plate
boundaries
DESERT
evaporation > precipitation
Hottest temperature, driest climate
Temperate- fluctuation in temp,
precipitation
Extremes- day and night
Adaptations
small leaves
deep and shallow roots
store biomass in seeds
low growing
wax on leaves
water in leaves
Plants
hair on leaves- reduce evaporation,
reflect sunlight, less air circulation
photosynthesis- open stomata at night,
fewer stomata
Animals
avoid heat- hibernate
dissipate heat- evaporate from mouth,
large ears, dark colours
retain water- burrowing, food sources,
solid wastes
acquire water- plants, recycle, retain,
moisture from air
Human Impacts
poor resilience
slow plant growth
low species diversity
slow nutrient cycles
lack of water
GRASSLAND, TUNDRA
transition between desert and forest
precipitation suitable for grass-
seasonal drought, large herbivore
grazing, occasional fires
temperate
polar or tropical
Tropical Savanna
warm temp
double drought seasons
hoofed animals
resource partitioning
Temperate Grassland
large plains NA/ SA
hot summer, cold winter
sparse precip
fertile soil
Polar
treeless
extreme cold
6-8 week growth
permafrost- frozen layer of soil
animals- burrow, fur
decomposition slow
poor soil
FORESTS
med/high precip
levels of trees
trees, low vege
deciduous
Tropical
equatorial
moisture, daily rainfall
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