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ES101 Study Guide - Final Guide: Genuine Progress Indicator, Commensalism, Critical Role

Environmental Studies
Course Code
Edmund Okoree
Study Guide

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Final Exam ES101 Textbook Notes
Chapter 5: Evolution and Biodiversity
Biological evolution took about 3.7 billion years and this is when cells developed
Theory of evolution Charles Darwin
Microevolution small genetic changes in a population
Macroevolution long-term evolutionary changes in a population
Gene pool a collection of genetic resources potentially available to the next generation
Genes that have two or more molecular forms are called alleles
Mutations random changes in DNA molecules in a cell that can be inherited
Mutagens are mutations caused by external agents such as radioactivity or chemicals
Fundamental niche full potential range of physical, chemical, and biological conditions and
resources a species could use
Generalists species are species that can have broad niches and capable of surviving in many areas
Specialist species have narrow niches and few habitats and few food choices, making them more
prone to extinction
Allopatric speciation occurs in two phases, the first being geographic isolation which occurs when
groups of the same population are physically isolated for long periods
Reproductive isolation occurs when the populations join again but are unable to sexually reproduce
Sympatric speciation occurs when subtle genetic or behavioral changes make it impossible for a
species to reproduce with another part of the population
GMO’s are genetically modified organisms or transgenic organisms
Humans have become powerful due to brain and thumb power
Background extinction, mass depletion and mass extinction are the forms of extinction from
weakest to greatest
Chapter 6: Biomes
Biomes the main types of natural vegetation in different undisturbed land areas
Biomes formed by differences in climate, average temperature, and precipitation due to air and
water circulation
The world is divided into 12 biomes arctic tundra, boreal forest, temperate deciduous forest, etc
Canada has eight biomes polar grassland, polar coniferous or boreal forest, aspen parkland,
northern hardwood, temperate deciduous forest, temperate rain forest, montane forest, temperate
Deserts have more evaporation than precipitation
Deserts cover about 30% of the earth’s surface
Polar grasslands are cold and dry and have permafrost
Chaparral areas are temperate shrublands with a great climate but are subject to fires, followed by
mudslides and flooding
Forests experience natural capital degradation mostly through clearing forests for timber or
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